School for Viticulture and Enology

Principles of Microbiology

This course is part of the programme:
Bachelor's programme in Viticulture and Enology (1st level)

Objectives and competences

  • acquaint students with the fundamentals of microbiology, to the extent necessary for an understanding remaining items (Wine microbiology, Plant Pathology, Selection of vines and Soil Chemistry and Biology). Emphasis on presentation of individual groups of microorganisms, structural and metabolic characteristics that interactions of microorganisms and their hosts, and the role of microorganisms in natural or artificial processes
  • to acquaint students with basic microbiological techniques
  • to acquaint students with the basic concepts, which were then able to apply for further studies


Elementary knowledge of biology, chemistry and physics.

Content (Syllabus outline)


  • Structure of prokaryotic cells
  • Comparison between bacterial, archeic and eukaryotic cell, lipid bilayer, nucleic acids, ribosomes, cell wall, extracellular matrix, cell inclusions, spores and sporulation, Golgi apparatus, transport vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, endosomes , mitochondria, chloroplasts, cytoskeleton , microtubules, centrioli, nucleus, flageae, fimbriae, glycocalyx, periplasm, microscopy and other techniques to study microbial structures.
  • Groups of micro-organisms (with emphasis on bacteria, fungi, viruses). Basic composition characteristics and the principles of sistematics.
  • Growth and microorganism growth regulation.
  • Closed systems of microorganisms cultivation , continuous methods of cultivation of microorganisms, cultivation of anaerobic microorganisms , the concept of pure culture biofilms, biotic and abiotic factors of the environment, carbon assimilation of nitrogen and sulfur , microbiological culture media, sterilization and methods of sterilization , disinfection , decontamination, anti- microbial substances, secondary metabolites .
  • Metabolic diversity of microorganisms
  • Basic metabolic reactions (oxidation – reduction, fermentation, aerobic and anaerobic respiration), heterotrophic , autotrophic and litotrophic metabolism, certain metabolic features (nitrogen fixators, sulfate reducing bacteria , producers of methane), the importance of microorganisms in the cycling of substances
  • Connection of microorganisms and their hosts
  • Pathogens and virulence factors , food poisoning , the positive effects of microbial populations ( normal microbial flora in humans , animals and plants )
  • Use of micro-organisms : examples of enology industry, agriculture , mining


  • Cultivation of bacteria and fungi

-the impact of various factors on growth (salinity, the presence of oxygen, temperature)

- he impact of different media on the growth of bacteria (basic , enrichment, selective differential medium ) – for example : isolation of bacteria from soil sample on different types of media and in different conditions

  • Microscopy of microorganisms

- Preparation of microscopy preparates

- Simple and differential staining

- observation of morphological features

(spores, capsules, etc.)

- comparison of yeast and bacteria

  • Controlling the growth of microbial populations

-antibiotics (antibiogram)

-natural substances with antibacterial activity



  • Determination of the number of microorganisms

- counting under the microscope

- cultivation methods (MPN counting on the plates)

  • Isolation of bacteria and fungi in the natural environment

- isolation of bacteria of the genus Rhizobium from clover nudulov

- isolation of bacteria from the surface of leaves of different plants

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding

After the lectures, students will be able understand and know basic microbiology which is necessary for an understanding of microbial processes in the production of wine in the soil and the processes in plants. Students gain practical experience in basic laboratory techniques in microbiology.


  • Madigan M.T., Martinko J.M., Parker J.,. Brock Biology of microorganisms, 10th ed., 2003, Prentice Hall
  • Rupnik M., Zalar P., Janc M., Splošna mikrobiologija: navodila za vaje, (Knjižna zbirka Scripta, Mikrobiologija). 2001, Ljubljana, Študentska založba
  • Stopar, D. in Mahne I., Praktikum iz mikrobiologije, 1998


Laboratory practice examination, lectures’ written examination (50 %/50 %)

Lecturer's references

Assistant profesor for the field of Microbiology, fully employed at University of Nova Gorica.

Selected publications

1. SIVILOTTI, Paolo, BUTINAR, Lorena, STERNAD LEMUT, Melita. Leaf removal treatments as affecting Botrytis Cinerea occurance on Pinot Gris grapes from North Eastern Italy : results over four years of trials. V: QUEIROZ, Jorge (ur.). Proceedings, (Ciência e técnica vitivinícola, ISSN 0254-0223, vol. 28). Dois Porto: Estação vitivinícola nacional, 2013, vol. 28, tom. 1, str. 446-450. [COBISS.SI-ID 2816251]

tipologija 1.08 -> 1.01

2. BUTINAR, Lorena, FRISVAD, Jens Christian, GUNDE-CIMERMAN, Nina. Hypersaline waters : a potential source of foodborne toxigenic aspergilli and penicillia. FEMS microbiology, ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, 2011, vol. 77, no. 1, str. 186-199, doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01108.x. [COBISS.SI-ID 1882107]

3. BUTINAR, Lorena, STRMOLE, Tadeja, GUNDE-CIMERMAN, Nina. Relative incidence of ascomycetous yeasts in Arctic coastal environments. Microbial ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, 2011, vol. 61, no. 4, str. 832-843, doi: 10.1007/s00248-010-9794-3. [COBISS.SI-ID 1780731]

4. MOHORČIČ, Martina, JERMAN, Ivan, ZORKO, Mateja, BUTINAR, Lorena, OREL, Boris, JERALA, Roman, FRIEDRICH, Jožica. Surface with antimicrobial activity obtained through silane coating with covalently bound polymyxin B. Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, 2010, vol. 21, issue 10, str. 2775-2782., doi: 10.1007/s10856-010-4136-z. [COBISS.SI-ID 4471578]

University course code: 1VV104

Year of study: 1

Semester: 1

Course principal:





  • Lectures: 30 hours
  • Exercises: 15 hours
  • Individual work: 75 hours

Course type: mandatory

Languages: slovene

Learning and teaching methods:
lectures, laboratory practice, students' independent work