School for Viticulture and Enology

Plant Pathology

This course is part of the programme:
Bachelor's programme in Viticulture and Enology (1st level)

Objectives and competences

The aim of this course is to gain knowledge of plant pathogens and pests, as this knowledge is indispensable for the successful protection of the vine. Identification of individual pathogens and pests in the field is a prerequisite for their successful determination in the laboratory. When considering each pathogen or pest will be particularly vulnerable cases per vine. Knowledge of the pathology will kombiniralo with knowledge of physiology of plants, since only in this way can we understand the course of the disease and the factors affecting them, as well as the mechanisms of resistance and various biotechnological approaches to the cultivation of the vine. The close relationship of lectures and exercises enables students to learn practical plant diseases and pests with as many examples on the vine, as well as the verification of knowledge.


Knowledge of plant biology, physiology and microbiology.

Content (Syllabus outline)

Pathogens (basic morphology, sistematic)

- viruses, viroids

- phytoplasmas

- bacteria

- fungi

- parasitic plants

- diseases not coused by pathogens

Pests (basic morphology, sistematic)

- nematode

- insects

- mites

- millipedes

- vertebrate

Diagnostic methods

- morphological description

- disease symptoms

- indicator plants

- serological tests (ELISA, immuno fluorscence, fast tests)

- light microscopy

- electron microscopy

- molecular methods (PCR, RT-PCR, Real time PCR, microchip)

- preservation of permanent preparation (liophylisation, microbial bank)

Begining and development of disease

- Disease symptoms

- The mechanisms disease induction

- host – pathogen relationsih

- The entry of the pathogen into the plant, expansion of the plant and between plants, propagation

- response of plants to pathogens

- The influence of external factors

- plant defence, induced defense


- Fundamentals of pests ethology with emphasis on insects and mites

- Attitude host plant – pest

- Specialization of pests

- Mechanism of finding the host

- Population dynamics of pests (environmental impact, competing, predation, parasitism)

- Methods of monitoring;

Protection of plants against pests and diseases (general)

- Methods of Plant Protection (general)

- Bringing healthy plants (link with biotechnology, or morphology and physiology)

- Education resistant varieties

- Mechanical methods

- Biological Protection

- Chemical Protection

Plant protection products:

- distribution

- mode of action

- the impact on the environment and human and animal health

- registration and sale of pesticides

- safe use of pesticides

Legislation in the field of plant health

Slovenian and European regulations on plant protection (regulated pest quarantine and phytosanitary control the movement of the pest)


Practical exercises in the laboratory:

Learning about insects, fungi and nematodes under light microscopy observation of viruses and bacteria under electron microscope demonstration of serological ELISA and PCR testing of infecting plants and observation of disease symptoms.

Field work: Getting to know the diseases and pests in the field, especially in the vineyard

Intended learning outcomes

Practical and theoretical knowledge and understanding of plant diseases and pests with as many examples on the vine.


Maček, J. 1990. Posebna fitopatologija, Patologija sadnega drevja in vinske trte. 2. izdaja Univerza Edvarda Kardelja, VDO Biotehniška fakulteta, VTOZD za agronomijo. Ljubljana, 275 s.

Vršič, S.; Lešnik, M. 2001. Vinogradništvo. Založba kmečki glas. Ljubljana, 215-346.

Maček, J., Kač, M. 1990: Kemična sredstva za varstvo rastlin. ČZP Kmečki glas; 504 str.

Agrios, N. G. 1995. Plant pathology. Third edition, Academic Press Inc., Harcourt Brače Jovanovich Publishers, San Diego, New York, Boston, London, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, 801 s.

Kišpatić J., 1985: Opća fitopatologija. Fakultet poljoprivrednih znanosti Sveučilišta u Zagrebu. 306 str.

Pedigo, L. P., 1996: Entomology & pest management. 2nd Edition. Prentice Hall; 679 str.

dodatno študijsko gradivo bo na voljo iz specializirane literature


Students have to prepare a seminar of selected topic from the course and present it. The presentation of seminar is obligatory for attending the exa,.

Lecturer's references

Dr. Maja Ravnikar is associated professor for the field of Biotechnology, mag. Seljak higher lectures for the field of Fitopathology.

Maja Ravnikar (zadnje publikacije/last publications)

1. RAČKI, Nejc, MORISSET, Dany, GUTIERREZ-AGUIRRE, Ion, RAVNIKAR, Maja. One-step RT-droplet digital PCR : a breakthrough in the quantification of waterborne RNA viruses. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, 2014, vol. 406, issue 3, str. 661-667. pdf?auth66=1386247888_e6b1a68707779a7e4b91476bbc18771b&ext=.pdf, doi: 10.1007/s00216-013-7476-y. [COBISS.SI-ID 2990415]

4. DOBNIK, David, MORISSET, Dany, LENARČIČ, Rok, RAVNIKAR, Maja. Simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA targets based on multiplex isothermal amplification. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, 2014, vol. 62, no. 13, str. 2989-2996., doi: 10.1021/jf5002149. [COBISS.SI-ID 3071055]

5. MEHLE, Nataša, DREO, Tanja, RAVNIKAR, Maja. Quantitative analysis of ˝flavescence doreé˝ phytoplasma with droplet digital PCR. Phytopathogenic mollicutes, ISSN 2249-4669, 2014, vol. 4, no. 1, str. 9-15, doi: 10.5958/2249-4677.2014.00576.3. [COBISS.SI-ID 3174991]

6. KOGOVŠEK, Polona, HODGETTS, Jennifer, HALL, J., PREZELJ, Nina, NIKOLIĆ, Petra, MEHLE, Nataša, LENARČIČ, Rok, ROTTER, Ana, DICKINSON, M., BOONHAM, Neil, DERMASTIA, Marina, RAVNIKAR, Maja. LAMP assay and rapid sample preparation method for on-site detection of flavescence dorée phytoplasma in grapevine. Plant Pathology, ISSN 0032-0862, 2014, vol. , no. , 11 str., [in press].;jsessionid=7850B082A5DCFD15057B22A9A431AFE1.f03t02, doi: 10.1111/ppa.12266. [COBISS.SI-ID 3175247]

7. LENARČIČ, Rok, MORISSET, Dany, PIRC, Manca, LLOP, Pablo, RAVNIKAR, Maja, DREO, Tanja. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of specific endoglucanase gene sequence for detection of the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Apr. 2014, vol. 9, iss. 4, str. 1-8, ilustr., doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096027. [COBISS.SI-ID 3114575]

8. KUTNJAK, Denis, SILVESTRE, Rocio, CUELLAR, Wilmer J., PEREZ, Wilmer, MÜLLER, Giovanna, RAVNIKAR, Maja, KREUZE, Jan F. Complete genome sequences of new divergent potato virus X isolates and discrimination between strains in a mixed infection using small RNAs sequencing approach. Virus Research, ISSN 0168-1702. [Print ed.], 2014, vol. 191, str. 45-50., doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2014.07.012. [COBISS.SI-ID 3188559]

9. ERJAVEC, Jana, KOS, Janko, RAVNIKAR, Maja, DREO, Tanja, SABOTIČ, Jerica. Proteins of higher fungi – from forest to application. Trends in biotechnology, ISSN 0167-7799. [Print ed.], 2012, vol. 30, issue 5, str. 259-273., doi: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2012.01.004. [COBISS.SI-ID 2504527]

10. MEHLE, Nataša, RAVNIKAR, Maja. Plant viruses in aqueous environment : survival, water mediated transmission and detection. Water research, ISSN 0043-1354. [Print ed.], 2012, vol. 46, iss. 16, str. 4902-4917., doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2012.07.027. [COBISS.SI-ID 2613327]

Gabrijel Seljak (zadnje publikacije/last publications)

1. SELJAK, Gabrijel. Dinamika vnosa tujerodnih fitofagnih žuželk in pršic v Slovenijo. Acta entomologica slovenica, ISSN 1318-1998, dec. 2013, vol. 21, no. 2, str. 85-122, ilustr. http://www.pms-lj. si/si/files/default/Publikacije/Strokovna-glasila/Acta-entomologica-slovenica/2013/2/Seljak_Dinamika%20vnosa%20tujerodnih%20fitofagnih%20%C5 %BEu%C5%BEelk%20in%20pr%C5%A1ic%20v%20Slovenijo_AES%202013.pdf. [COBISS.SI-ID 1271797]

2. SELJAK, Gabrijel. Hishimonus hamatus Kuoh (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): a new alien leafhopper in Europe. Acta entomologica slovenica, ISSN 1318-1998, dec. 2013, vol. 21, no. 2, str. 123-130, ilustr. http://www.pms-lj. si/si/files/default/Publikacije/Strokovna-glasila/Acta-entomologica-slovenica/2013/2/Seljak_Hishimonus%20hamatus%20Kuoh_AES%202013.pdf. [COBISS.SI-ID 1272053]

3. MALENOVSKÝ, Igor, BÜCKLE, Christoph, GUGLIELMINO, Adalgisa, KOCZOR, Sándor, NICKEL, Herbert, SELJAK, Gabrijel, SCHUCH, Sebastian, WITSACK, Werner. Contribution to the Auchenorrhyncha fauna of the Pálava Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha et Cicadomorpha). Cicadina, ISSN 1868-3592, 2013, bd. 13, str. 29-41. [COBISS.SI-ID 3281403]

4. SELJAK, Gabrijel. The burr-seed fly, Euaresta aequalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), newly recorded in Europe, with new observations on its biology = Die Klettensamenfliege Euaresta aequalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) erstmals in Europa nachgewiesen, mit neuen Beobachtungen zu ihrer Biologie. Studia dipterologica, ISSN 0945-3954, 2013, vol. 20, no. 1, str. 31-38. [COBISS.SI-ID 3281915]

5. GRIŽON, Primož, SELJAK, Gabrijel, TOMAŽIČ, Irma. Migration of Scaphoideus titanus Ball from the surrounding vineyards into the nursery. Acta agriculturae Slovenica, ISSN 1581-9175. [Tiskana izd.], 2012, letn. 99, št. 2, str. 213-223, graf. prikazi. [COBISS.SI-ID 264723712]

6. SELJAK, Gabrijel. Six new alien phytophagous insect species recorded in Slovenia in 2011. Acta entomologica slovenica, ISSN 1318-1998, jun. 2012, vol. 20, št. 1, str. 31-44, ilustr. [COBISS.SI-ID 1118965]

7. ŠIMALA, Mladen, MASTEN-MILEK, Tatjana, SELJAK, Gabrijel. Prvi nalaz grinje Stigmaeopsis nanjingensis (Ma & Yuan, 1980) (Acari: Tetranychidae) na bambusu (Phyllostachys sp.) u Hrvatskoj. Glasilo biljne zaštite, ISSN 1332-9545, 2012, vol. 12, br. 5, str. 435-440. [COBISS.SI-ID 3281147]

8. DE GROOT, Maarten, HAUPTMAN, Tine, SELJAK, Gabrijel. Prva najdba invazivne brestove grizlice, Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera: Argidae) v Sloveniji = The first record of the invasive “Zigzag” Sawfly Aproceros leucopoda (Hymenoptera: Argidae) in Slovenia. Gozdarski vestnik, ISSN 0017-2723, 2012, letn. 70, št. 1, str. 3-7, ilustr. [COBISS.SI-ID 3334566]

9. VEROVNIK, Rudi, POLAK, Slavko (avtor, fotograf), SELJAK, Gabrijel. Pojav in širjenje tujerodne vrste dnevnega metulja – pelargonijevega bakrenčka (Cacyreus marshalli (Butler 1898)) v Sloveniji = On the presence and expansion of an allochthonous butterfly species in Slovenia – the Geranium Bronze (Cacyreus marshalli (Butler 1898)). Acta entomologica slovenica, ISSN 1318-1998, jun. 2011, vol. 19, št. 1, str. 5-16, ilustr. [COBISS.SI-ID 975861]

10. SELJAK, Gabrijel. First record of the Nearctic leafhopper Erasmoneura vulnerata (Fitch, 1851) [Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae] in Slovenia = Pojavljanje nearktičnega škržatka Erasmoneura vulnerata (Fitch, 1851) [Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae] v Sloveniji. Acta entomologica slovenica, ISSN 1318-1998, jun. 2011, vol. 19, št. 1, str. 37-42, ilustr. [COBISS.SI-ID 976373]

University course code: 1VV203

Year of study: 2

Semester: 1

Course principal:





  • Lectures: 45 hours
  • Exercises: 15 hours
  • Individual work: 90 hours

Course type: obligatory course

Languages: slovene

Learning and teaching methods:
lectures, laboratory practice, field observations, students' independent work