School of Humanities

Political history of Habsburgh monarchy in 19. and 20. century

This course is part of the programme:
Bachelor's study programme Cultural history (1st level)

Objectives and competences

The purpose of this course is to acquaint the students with the political history of the Austrian Empire (1804–1866) and Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918), respectively. The students do not learn just about Slovenian history but also about the basic course of development of the political history of other nations in Central Europe. The aim of the course is to encourage the students to deepen the knowledge of peoples in the Slovenian neighborhood and the entire area of the former states (Austro-Hungary, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Yugoslavia).

The seminar, which is substantially related to the lectures, the critical evaluation of the Slovenian political journalism before 1918.

The students read newspapers and Memoirs about the problems Slovenian position in a multinational empire and learn about the position of the Slovenian policy in international relations.

Prerequisites

The course is related to the courses Cultural History of Slovenian territory, the World Wars of 20th century, Culture of regions and of border areas, Legal history.

Content (Syllabus outline)

The course consists of two parts:

The first part covers the topics concerning the internal political issues; while the second one deals with the foreign policy of the Habsburg Monarchy from the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna (1815) to the First World War.

In the first part, the focus is on the major political ideologies (liberalism, conservatism, political Catholicism, Austro-Marxism), party life, parliamentarianism and national development issues in the context of the multi-national empire.

The second part deals with the foreign policy of the Habsburg Monarchy and its status as the European superpower. Students get an insight into the functioning and structure of the diplomatic apparatus of the Habsburg Monarchy. The focus is on the Austro-Hungarian policy in South Eastern Europe, especially in relation to South Slavic national movements in the Balkans.

Ideologies and the development of a national issue in the Habsburg Monarchy:

  • cohesive forces of the Habsburg Monarchy: Dynasty, Church, army and bureaucracy
  • Austrian Empire as a defender of the “old order”: Austrian conservatism
  • National Romanticism and the “Spring of Nations” (1848)
  • Austro-Slavism
  • Counterrevolution and Neo-absolutism
  • Restoration of Constitutional era (1861) and the rise of Liberalism
  • Compromise with the Hungarians (1867) and the characteristics of the dualistic scheme
  • Czech question
  • Pan-Germanism
  • Political Catholicism
  • Austro-Marxism
  • Problems of the Austrian Parlamentarism and electoral reform (1907)
  • Grand Austrian movement
  • Yugoslav question
  • Reform plans of the Austrian government circles during Great War

The Habsburg Monarchy in the system of European superpowers:

  • Foreign policy – the emperor and ministers
  • Diplomatic apparatus of the Habsburg Monarchy
  • Austria and the Napoleonic Wars
  • Congress of Vienna (1815) and “Holy Alliance”
  • Dissolution of the “European concert” of superpowers
  • Habsburg struggle for primacy in German empire
  • Berlin Congress (1878) and the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • “Dual Alliance” with Germany
  • “Alliance of the Three Emperors”
  • problems of the Austrian- Italian cooperation in the “Triple Alliance”
  • Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1908)
  • Austrian policy during the Balkan wars (1912/1913)
  • The Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Great Powers on the eve of the Great War
  • Relations between Central Forces during Great War
  • Austrian attempts to sign separate peace treaty and attitude of the Entente forces to the Austrian problem

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding:

The students are able to understand the historical happening from the early 19th century to the First World War in Europe in generally, but in depth in the Habsburg Monarchy. They are able to understand and analyze historical texts, as well as the development of modern and democratic society.

Readings

Core literature:

  • Francis Roy Bridge, The Habsburg Monarchy among the Great Powers 1815-1918 (New York-Oxford-Munich 1990)
  • Robert A. Kann, The Multinational Empire. Nationalism and National Reform in the Habsburg Monarchy 1848-1918, I-II (New York 1950) [razširjena nemška izdaja: Das Nationalitätenproblem der Habsburgermonarchie. Geschichte und Ideengehalt der nationalen Bestrebungen vom Vormärz bis zur Auflösung des Reiches im Jahre 1918, I-II (Veröffentlichungen der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Ost 4, 5, Graz-Köln 1964)]
  • Henry A. Kissinger, Obnovljeni svijet. Metternich, Castelreagh i problemi mira 1812-1822 (Zagreb 1976)
  • Vasilij Melik, Volitve na Slovenskem 1861-1918 (Ljubljana 1965)
  • Helmut Rumpler, Eine Chance für Mitteleuropa. Bürgerliche Emanzipatiom und Staatsverfall in der Habsburgermonarchie (Österreichische Geschichte 1804-1914, Wien 1997)
  • Alan Sked, The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire 1815-1918 (Harlow ²2001)
  • Alan John Percival Taylor, Habsburška monarhija 1815-1918. Zgodovina avstrijskega cesarstva in Avstro-Ogrske (Ljubljana 1956)
  • Adam Wandruszka in Peter Urbanitsch (uredila), Die Habsburgermonarchie 1848-1918, III/1-2 (Wien 1980) in VI/1-2 (Wien 1989 in 1993)
  • Fran Zwitter, Nacionalni problemi v habsburški monarhiji (Ljubljana 1962)

Further readings:

  • Feliks J. Bister, Anton Korošec, državnozborski poslanec na Dunaju. Življenje in delo 1872-1918 (Ljubljana 1993)
  • Jean-Paul Bled, Franc Jožef (Ljubljana 1990)
  • Gordon Brook-Shepherd, Poslednji Habsburžan (Ljubljana 1972)
  • Janez Cvirn, Trdnjavski trikotnik. Politična orientacija Nemcev na Spodnjem Štajerskem (1861-1914) (Maribor 1997)
  • Igor Grdina, Slovenci med tradicijo in perspektivo. Politični mozaik 1860-1918 (Ljubljana 2003)
  • William M. Johnston, Austrijski duh. Intelektualna i društvena povijest 1848-1938 (Zagreb 1993)
  • Harald Havas, Habsburger Sammelsurium (Wien-Graz-Klagenfurt 2006)
  • Lothar Höbelt, Kornblume und Kaiseradler. Die deutschfreiheitlichen Parteien Altösterreichs 1882-1918 (Wien-München 1993)
  • Golo Mann, Friedrich von Gentz. Geschichte eines europäischen Staatsmannes (Frankfurt/M-Berlin-Wien 1972)
  • Egon Pelikan, Akomodacija ideologije političnega katolicizma na Slovenskem (Maribor 1997)
  • Janko Pleterski, Dr. Ivan Šušteršič. Pot prvaka slovenskega političnega katolicizma (Ljubljana 1998)
  • Andrej Rahten, Slovenska ljudska stranka v dunajskem parlamentu. Slovenska parlamentarna politika v habsburški monarhiji 1897-1914 (Celje 2001)
  • Andrej Rahten, Pozabljeni slovenski premier. Politična biografija dr. Janka Brejca (1869-1934) (Celovec-Ljubljana-Dunaj 2002)
  • Andrej Rahten, Zavezništva in delitve. Razvoj slovensko-hrvaških političnih odnosov v habsburški monarhiji 1848-1918 (Ljubljana 2005)
  • Joseph Roth, Radetzkyjeva koračnica (Ljubljana 1982)
  • Franc Rozman et al. (ur.), Baron Josef Schwegel. Spomini in pisma (Mengeš 2007)
  • Helmut Rumpler, Max Hussarek. Nationalitäten und Nationalitätenpolitik in Österreich im Sommer des Jahres 1918 (Studien zur Geschichte der österreichisch-ungarischen Monarchie 4, Graz-Köln 1965)
  • Helmut Rumpler, Das Völkermanifest Kaiser Karls vom 16. Oktober 1918. Letzter Versuch zur Rettung der Habsburgermonarchie (München 1966)

Assessment

Seminar paper and oral exam.

Lecturer's references

Prof. ddr. Igor Grdina is full professor and research counsellor.

Grdina Igor: Ivan Hribar: “jedini resnični radikalec slovenski”. Ljubljana 2010

Grdina Igor: Preroki, doktrinarji, epigoni : idejni boji na Slovenskem v prvi polovici 20. stoletja. Ljubljana 2005

Grdina Igor: Slovenci med tradicijo in perspektivo : politični mozaik 1860-1918, Ljubljana 2003

Grdiba Igor: Ipavci : zgodovina slovenske meščanske dinastije. Ljubljana 2002

Grdina Igor: Od rodoljuba z dežele do meščana. Ljubljana 1999

University course code: 1KZ025

Year of study: 1

Semester: 2

Course principal:

Lecturer:

Assistant:

ECTS: 8

Workload:

  • Lectures: 60 hours
  • Seminar: 45 hours
  • Individual work: 135 hours

Course type: mandatory

Languages: slovene

Learning and teaching methods:
lectures, guided discussions, exercises in interpreting historical newspapers and archives documents. presentation and discussion of seminar paper.