School of Science

UV and IR Spectroscopies

This course is part of the programme:
Material Science

Objectives and competences

In this course, the students learn modern IR and UV spectroscopic methods for the characterization of the atomic, molecular and electronic structure of materials. They gain know-how and practical experiences necessary for realisation of experiments, and analysis and interpretation of results of different spectroscopic methods.

Content (Syllabus outline)

The course discusses the interaction between electromagnetic waves and matter in the UV and IR frequency range. Students learn theoretical principles, and in practical laboratory exercises gain know-how necessary to use individual spectroscopic methods which are most frequently used in the characterization of materials (crystalline and amorphous), liquid precursors, nanostructured matters and surfaces. Analysis and interpretation of results of different spectroscopic methods is demonstrated on practical examples from research practice. The course presents the properties of the light sources used by individual spectroscopic methods. Emphasis is placed on the applicability of individual spectroscopic methods and their complementarities. Students use real cases to check which combination of spectroscopic methods is optimal for the analysis of specific material properties.

UV-Vis spectroscopy

  • Measurement of transmittance and absorbance, Beer’s law
  • Instrumentation
  • Molar absorptivities, absorbing species
  • Qualitative applications of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy
  • Quantitative analysis by absorption measurements
  • Spectrophotometric kinetic methods
  • Case studies on modern materials

IR and Raman spectroscopy

  • Theory of IR absorption spectrometry
  • Instrumentation, IR sources
  • Mid-IR absorption spectrometry
  • Mid-IR reflection spectrometry
  • Photoacoustic IR spectroscopy
  • Near-IR spectroscopy
  • Far-IR spectroscopy
  • IR microscopy
  • Theory of Raman spectroscopy
  • Instrumentation
  • Case studies of IR and Raman spectroscopy on modern materials.

Intended learning outcomes

Students learn the principles of different molecular spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis, IR, Raman) and their use in practice as structural tools. Students gain know-how on the whole process from preparation and realisation of different spectroscopic experiments, to the analysis and finally the interpretation of results of different spectroscopic methods. With practical work on examples from research practice using up-to-date software, they learn the evaluation and interpretation of obtained results. They obtain know-how necessary to perform successful experiments at different spectroscopic laboratories, including different beamlines at different synchrotron radiation facilities. Students learn which combination of spectroscopic methods is optimal for the analysis of specific material properties.


  • D. A. Skoog, F. J. Holler, T. A. Nieman, Principles of instrumental analysis, Saunders College Publishing, Philadelpia, 1998

  • D. A. Skoog, F. J. Holler, S. R. Crouch, Principles of instrumental analysis, 6th edition, Thomson Higher Education, Belmont, USA, 2007

  • J. E. Turner, Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation protection, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1995

  • B. S. Furniss, A. J. Hannaford, P. W. G. Smith, A. R. Tatchell, Vogel’s Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th edition, Longman Scientific & Technical and John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996

  • K. Nakamoto, Infrared and Raman Spectra of Inorganic and Coordination Compounds, 6th edition, two volume set, Wiley Interscience, 2008

  • Assessment

    During the course students prepare written reports on laboratory exercises and on individual projects on analysis of real data from research practice. All projects are defended orally in an open discussion with professor and other students

    Lecturer's references

    Prof. dr. Jože Grdadolnik:

    Redni profesor za področje fizike na Univerzi v Novi Gorici

    University course code: 2ZMA04

    Year of study: 1

    Semester: 2

    Course principal:


    ECTS: 6


    • Lectures: 20 hours
    • Exercises: 10 hours
    • Seminar: 20 hours
    • Field exercises: 10 hours
    • Individual work: 120 hours

    Course type: mandatory

    Languages: slovenian / english

    Learning and teaching methods:
    lectures, laboratory exercises on different spectroscopic methods and analysis of results, exercises on state of the art software for the analysis of different spectroscopic spectra under supervision of the the lecturer responsible for the course