Carbonate rocks

This course is part of the programme
Karstology (Third Cycle)

Objectives and competences

“Karst” is the term applied to landscapes that develop on carbonate rocks. Carbonate rocks cover about 20% of the Earth’s surface. Some 43% of the surface of Slovenia is composed of carbonate rocks, around 35% limestones and 8% dolomites. To better understand the processes of karstification, a good understanding of the properites of carbonate rocks is necessary. Students will study in detail the origin of sedimentary rocks, which includes carbonate rocks. They will learn the specific special conditions for the development of carbonate rocks and become familiar in more detail with the general lithostratographical characteristics, composition, and classification of carbonate rock and the distribution of carbonate rocks in Slovenia and around the world. Special attention will be devoted to the rocks of southwestern Slovenia. Basic methods of studying carbonate rocks, the use of geological maps, geological compass, and electron microscope, and the operation and use of geological equipment in the field will be covered.

Prerequisites

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Content

• Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks
• Origin of sedimentary rocks
• Properties of sedimentary rocks
• Origin of carbonate rocks
• Properties and composition of carbonate rocks
• Minerology of carbonate rocks
• Stratigraphical characteristics of carbonate rocks
• Limestone and dolomite and their classification
• Micrite and sparite
• Texture and structure of limestone
• Karstification of carbonate rocks

Intended learning outcomes

Student will gain detailed knowledge about the origin of carbonate rocks and their relationship to igneous and metamorphic rocks. Student will learn the origins and types of biochemical and clastic carbonate rocks. And will learn to identify carbonate rocks on geological maps and to recognize them in nature. Special attention will be devoted to the carbonate rocks occurring in Slovenia. Student will become familiar with the basic methods of studying carbonate rock and with the fundamental literature on carbonate rocks.

Readings

• Jurkovšek, B., Toman, M., Ogorelec, B., Šribar, L., Drobne, K., Poljak, M. & Šribar, L. 1996: Formacijska geološka karta južnega dela Tržaško-Komenske planote. Kredne in paleogenske karbonatne kamnine 1 : 50 000.- IGGG Ljubljana, 143 str., Ljubljana.
• Palmer, A.N., 2007: Cave Geology.- Cave books, 454 str., Dayton.
• Tišljar, J. 1987: Petrologija sedimentnih stijena.- RGN Fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, 242 str., Zagreb.
• Tišljar, J. 2001: Sedimentologija karbonata i evaporita.- RGN Fakultet Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, 375 str., Zagreb.
• Tucker, M.E. 2001: Sedimentary petrology, An Introduction to the Origin of Sedimentary Rocks (3rd edition).- 262 str., Blackwell science, Oxford.
• Tucker, M.E. & Wright, V.P. 1990: Carbonate Sedimentology.- Blackwell Scientific Publ., 482 str., Oxford, London.
• Selected articles from scientific journals.

Assessment

The examination will be written or oral and will cover the entire course content. It is intended to assess the knowledge the students have gained by the lectures and their ability to understand, articulate, and present the acquired knowledge. To sit the examination, students must attend at least 50% of the se¬minars and submit a short paper (5–10 pages) discussing a specific topic in the field of carbonate rocks or on a selected reference work linked to their seminar work or doctoral thesis. 50/50

Lecturer's references

Associate professor of Karstology.

Bibliography:

https://bib.cobiss.net/bibliographies/si/webBiblio/bib201_20211120_230049_a3419491.html

ŠEGINA, Ela, BENAC, Čedomir, ŠUŠTERŠIČ, France, KNEZ, Martin, ČAR, Jože. Linear features on karst surfaces: an example from Krk Island. Geologia Croatica : a journal of the Institute of Geology Zagreb and Croatian Geological Society. 2021, vol. 74, no. 2, str. 139-151. ISSN 1330-030X. DOI: 10.4154/gc.2021.13. [COBISS.SI-ID 76428803]

KNEZ, Martin, SLABE, Tadej, TRAJANOVA, Mirka, AKIMOVA, Tatjana, KALMYKOV, Igor. The karren peeling off on marbles in Altai (Altai Republic, Russian Federation) = Luščenje škrapelj na marmorjih v Altaju (Altajska republika, Ruska federacija). Acta carsologica. [Tiskana izd.]. 2020, letn. 49, št. 1, str. 11-38, ilustr. ISSN 0583-6050. https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/7197/8248, DOI: 10.3986/ac.v49i1.7197. [COBISS.SI-ID 35064323]

BLATNIK, Matej, CULVER, David C., GABROVŠEK, Franci, KNEZ, Martin, KOGOVŠEK, Blaž, KOGOVŠEK, Janja, LIU, Hong, MAYAUD, Cyril, MIHEVC, Andrej, MULEC, Janez, ALJANČIČ, Magdalena, OTONIČAR, Bojan, PETRIČ, Metka, PIPAN, Tanja, PRELOVŠEK, Mitja, RAVBAR, Nataša, SHAW, Trevor R., SLABE, Tadej, ŠEBELA, Stanka, ZUPAN HAJNA, Nadja, KNEZ, Martin (urednik), OTONIČAR, Bojan (urednik), PETRIČ, Metka (urednik), PIPAN, Tanja (urednik), SLABE, Tadej (urednik). Karstology in the classical karst. Cham: Springer, cop. 2020. XII, 222 str., ilustr., zvd., graf. prikazi. Advances in karst science. ISBN 978-3-030-26826-8. ISSN 2511-2066. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-26827-5. [COBISS.SI-ID 17912067]

KNEZ, Martin, SLABE, Tadej, GABROVŠEK, Franci, KOGOVŠEK, Janja, KRANJC, Andrej, MIHEVC, Andrej, MULEC, Janez, OTONIČAR, Bojan, PERNE, Matija, PETRIČ, Metka, PIPAN, Tanja, PRELOVŠEK, Mitja, RAVBAR, Nataša, ŠEBELA, Stanka, ZUPAN HAJNA, Nadja, BOSÁK, Pavel, PRUNER, Petr, LIU, Hong, KNEZ, Martin (urednik), SLABE, Tadej (urednik). Cave exploration in Slovenia : discovering over 350 new caves during motorway construction on classical karst. Cham [etc.]: Springer, cop. 2016. XIII, 324 str., ilustr. Cave and karst systems of the world. ISBN 978-3-319-21202-9. ISSN 2364-4591. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21203-6. [COBISS.SI-ID 38828077]

GABROVŠEK, Franci, KNEZ, Martin (avtor, urednik), KOGOVŠEK, Janja, MIHEVC, Andrej, MULEC, Janez, OTONIČAR, Bojan, PERNE, Matija, PETRIČ, Metka (avtor, urednik), PIPAN, Tanja, PRELOVŠEK, Mitja, SLABE, Tadej (avtor, urednik), ŠEBELA, Stanka (avtor, urednik), TURK, Janez, ZUPAN HAJNA, Nadja. The Beka-Ocizla cave system : karstological railway planning in Slovenia. Cham [etc.]: Springer, cop. 2015. X, 102 str., ilustr., zvd. Cave and karst systems of the world. ISBN 978-3-319-04455-2, ISBN 978-3-319-04456-9. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-04456-9. [COBISS.SI-ID 56041570]