Basic speleology

This course is part of the programme
Karstology (Third Cycle)

Objectives and competences

Caves are one of the most distinctive karst phenomena. The shape of their networks, the lengthwise or transverse cross-sections of their individual parts (passages or shafts), their rock relief, and their contents (alluvium and flowstone) all disclose the progress of their morphology and development. Unique caves develop in different regional frameworks, in various rock under various conditions, and through different processes. They are shaped by various water streams and percolating water. Caves reveal to us the flow of water through karst aquifers and their development and hold reserves of drinking water. Through a variety of activities and by logically correlating the indicators of the development of the cavernosity of karst aquifers, students will gain a comprehensive awareness of the karst as part of our natural and cultural heritage, the basis for planning life in karst regions and their protection.

Prerequisites

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Content

Introductory presentations
• Karst caves and karst aquifers
• Basic speleological work and literature
• Terminology
• Development of speleology
Basic methods of cave research
• Cartography
• Geological and hydrological methods
• Morphological methods
• Use of electronic measuring equipment and stations
• Methods of studying cave alluvia and flowstone
Forms of karst caves
• Cave networks
• Cross-sections of passages
• Rock relief in caves
Morphological cave processes
• Measuring specific chemical and physical indicators of water and air
• Statistical and computer modelling
Rational classification of caves
• Location
• Size
• Rock
• Origin
• Shape
• Hydrological role
Karst aquifers
• Cavernosity
• Development
Regional speleology
• Dispersion and distribution of caves relative to different types of karst and diverse geological, geomorphological, hydrological, and climate characteristics
• Caves in Slovenia
Starting points for using acquired knowledge and skills

Intended learning outcomes

Student gets introduction to the origin and shaping of the karst caves in different geological and geomorphological and hydrogeological circumstances and their development in Slovenia and different regions around world. Student recognizes caves as part of aquifer cavernosity and its development and complex development of karst. Student gets ability for autonomous recognizing and researching of karst caves and aquifers.

Readings

• Bretz, J.H., 1942: Vadose and phreatic features of limestone caves.- J. Geol., 50 (6), 675-811.
• Kranjc, A., 1989: Recent fluvial cave sediments, their origin and role in speleogenesis.- Opera 4.razreda, SAZU, ZRC, Inštitut za raziskovanje krasa, 27, 1, 1-167, Ljubljana.
• Gams, I., 2004: Kras v Sloveniji.- Založba ZRC, p.515, Ljubljana.
• Gillieson, D., 1996: Caves: processes, development and management.- Blackwell Publishers, Oxford & Cambridge.
• Klimchouk, A. B., D. C. Ford, A. N. Palmer, W. Dreybrodt (eds.), 2000: Speleogenesis, Evolution of Karst Aquifers.- National Speleological Society, Huntsville, Alabama, USA, p. 527.
• Palmer, A.N., 2007: Cave Geology.- Cave Books, Dayton, Ohio, p. 454.
• Slabe, T., 1995: Cave Rocky Relief and its Speleogenetical Significance, ZRC 10, Ljubljana, p. 128.
• Chosen article from scientific journals.

Assessment

To sit the examination, students must actively participate in the seminars and complete a short seminar assignment. 50/50

Lecturer's references

Full Professor of Karstology.

Bibliography:
https://bib.cobiss.net/bibliographies/si/webBiblio/bib201_20211120_230302_a2912867.html

KNEZ, Martin, SLABE, Tadej, TRAJANOVA, Mirka, AKIMOVA, Tatjana, KALMYKOV, Igor. The karren peeling off on marbles in Altai (Altai Republic, Russian Federation) = Luščenje škrapelj na marmorjih v Altaju (Altajska republika, Ruska federacija). Acta carsologica. [Tiskana izd.]. 2020, letn. 49, št. 1, str. 11-38, ilustr. ISSN 0583-6050. https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/7197/8248, DOI: 10.3986/ac.v49i1.7197. [COBISS.SI-ID 35064323]

BLATNIK, Matej, CULVER, David C., GABROVŠEK, Franci, KNEZ, Martin, KOGOVŠEK, Blaž, KOGOVŠEK, Janja, LIU, Hong, MAYAUD, Cyril, MIHEVC, Andrej, MULEC, Janez, ALJANČIČ, Magdalena, OTONIČAR, Bojan, PETRIČ, Metka, PIPAN, Tanja, PRELOVŠEK, Mitja, RAVBAR, Nataša, SHAW, Trevor R., SLABE, Tadej, ŠEBELA, Stanka, ZUPAN HAJNA, Nadja, KNEZ, Martin (urednik), OTONIČAR, Bojan (urednik), PETRIČ, Metka (urednik), PIPAN, Tanja (urednik), SLABE, Tadej (urednik). Karstology in the classical karst. Cham: Springer, cop. 2020. XII, 222 str., ilustr., zvd., graf. prikazi. Advances in karst science. ISBN 978-3-030-26826-8. ISSN 2511-2066. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-26827-5. [COBISS.SI-ID 17912067]

KNEZ, Martin, SLABE, Tadej, URUSHIBARA-YOSHINO, Kazuko. Lithology, rock relief and karstification of Minamidaito Island (Japan) = Litologija, skalni relief in zakrasevane [!] otoka Minamidaito (Japonska). Acta carsologica. [Tiskana izd.]. 2017, letn. 46, št. 1, str. 47-62, ilustr. ISSN 0583-6050. https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/2022/4745, DOI: 10.3986/ac.v46i1.2022. [COBISS.SI-ID 41879085]

SLABE, Tadej, HADA, Asami, KNEZ, Martin. Laboratory modeling of karst phenomena and their rock relief on plaster, subsoil karren, rain flutes karren and caves = Laboratorijsko modeliranje kraških pojavov in njihovega skalnega reliefa na mavcu : podtalne škraplje, dežni žlebiči in jame. V: KNEZ, Martin (ur.). IGCP/SIDA 598 : environmental change and sustainability in karst systems (2011-2015). Ljubljana: Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti: Znanstveno raziskovalni center SAZU, 2016. Letn. 45, št. 2, str. 187-204, ilustr. Acta carsologica, letn. 45, št. 2. ISBN 978-961-254-976-3. ISSN 0583-6050. http://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/4623/4397, DOI: 10.3986/ac.v45i2.4623. [COBISS.SI-ID 40739885]

KNEZ, Martin, SLABE, Tadej, GABROVŠEK, Franci, KOGOVŠEK, Janja, KRANJC, Andrej, MIHEVC, Andrej, MULEC, Janez, OTONIČAR, Bojan, PERNE, Matija, PETRIČ, Metka, PIPAN, Tanja, PRELOVŠEK, Mitja, RAVBAR, Nataša, ŠEBELA, Stanka, ZUPAN HAJNA, Nadja, BOSÁK, Pavel, PRUNER, Petr, LIU, Hong, KNEZ, Martin (urednik), SLABE, Tadej (urednik). Cave exploration in Slovenia : discovering over 350 new caves during motorway construction on classical karst. Cham [etc.]: Springer, cop. 2016. XIII, 324 str., ilustr. Cave and karst systems of the world. ISBN 978-3-319-21202-9. ISSN 2364-4591. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21203-6. [COBISS.SI-ID 38828077]