Karst in the world - selected examples

This course is part of the programme
Karstology (Third Cycle)

Objectives and competences

Karst regions are found everywhere around the world. In some parts of the world, carbonate rocks occur more frequently on the surface and in other parts less frequently. Generally speaking, the processes of karstification progress similarly in various parts of the world, but for more detailed research or interpretation we must consider numerous local factors. Student get knowledge on various factors that in many places characteristically influence the processes of karstification since only in this way we can correctly interpret the various karst geomorphological phenomena that occur in all latitudes.




• Developmental steps in the karstification of rock on the surface and underground
• Regional and local aspects of karstification
• Types of karstification relative to latitude, climate, type of rock, etc
• Factors that influence typical karstification
• Selected examples of karst areas in the world

Intended learning outcomes

Students will learn about the distribution of karst regions around the world and about some typical karst regions outside Slovenia. They will become familiar with the types of karstification in diverse geological and climate conditions, latitudes, and altitudes and compare them with the karst in Slovenia. They will get an overview of the basic literature dealing with karst regions around the world.


• Selected papers of karst areas from the world.
• Selected articles from scientific journals.
Example for China
• Ford, D., J.N. Salomon, P. Williams, 1997: The Lunan Stone forest as a potential world heritage site.- Stone forest a treasure of natural heritage, Proceedings of International Symposium of Lunan Shilin to Apply for World Natural Heritage Status, 107-123, China environmental science press.
• Ford, D., P. Williams, 1989: Karst Geomorphology and Hidrology.- U. Hyman, 601 str /p, London.
• Knez et al., (ur. / eds.), 1998: South China Karst I.- Založba ZRC, 247 str/p., Ljubljana.
• Knez et al., (ur. / eds.), 2011: South China Karst II.- Založba ZRC, 237 str/p, Ljubljana.
• Sweeting, M.M, 1995: Karst in China.- Springer-Verlag, 265 str/p, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.
• Trudgill; S.T., 1985: Limestone Geomorphology.- Longman, 196 str/p, London, New York.
• Yuan D., 1991: Karst of China.- Geological Publishing House, 224 str/p, Beijing.
• White, W.B., 1988: Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains.- Oxford University Press, 464 str/p, New York.


The examination will be written or oral and will cover the entire course content. It is intended to assess the knowledge the students have acquired in the lectures and their ability to understand, articulate, and present the knowledge acquired. To sit the examination, students must attend at least 50% of the seminars and submit a short paper (5–10 pages) discussing a specific topic in the field of karst terrains round the world or on a selected reference work linked to their seminar work or doctoral thesis. 50/50

Lecturer's references

Associate professor of Karstology.



ŠEGINA, Ela, BENAC, Čedomir, ŠUŠTERŠIČ, France, KNEZ, Martin, ČAR, Jože. Linear features on karst surfaces: an example from Krk Island. Geologia Croatica : a journal of the Institute of Geology Zagreb and Croatian Geological Society. 2021, vol. 74, no. 2, str. 139-151. ISSN 1330-030X. DOI: 10.4154/gc.2021.13. [COBISS.SI-ID 76428803]

KNEZ, Martin, SLABE, Tadej, TRAJANOVA, Mirka, AKIMOVA, Tatjana, KALMYKOV, Igor. The karren peeling off on marbles in Altai (Altai Republic, Russian Federation) = Luščenje škrapelj na marmorjih v Altaju (Altajska republika, Ruska federacija). Acta carsologica. [Tiskana izd.]. 2020, letn. 49, št. 1, str. 11-38, ilustr. ISSN 0583-6050. https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/7197/8248, DOI: 10.3986/ac.v49i1.7197. [COBISS.SI-ID 35064323]

BLATNIK, Matej, CULVER, David C., GABROVŠEK, Franci, KNEZ, Martin, KOGOVŠEK, Blaž, KOGOVŠEK, Janja, LIU, Hong, MAYAUD, Cyril, MIHEVC, Andrej, MULEC, Janez, ALJANČIČ, Magdalena, OTONIČAR, Bojan, PETRIČ, Metka, PIPAN, Tanja, PRELOVŠEK, Mitja, RAVBAR, Nataša, SHAW, Trevor R., SLABE, Tadej, ŠEBELA, Stanka, ZUPAN HAJNA, Nadja, KNEZ, Martin (urednik), OTONIČAR, Bojan (urednik), PETRIČ, Metka (urednik), PIPAN, Tanja (urednik), SLABE, Tadej (urednik). Karstology in the classical karst. Cham: Springer, cop. 2020. XII, 222 str., ilustr., zvd., graf. prikazi. Advances in karst science. ISBN 978-3-030-26826-8. ISSN 2511-2066. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-26827-5. [COBISS.SI-ID 17912067]

KNEZ, Martin, SLABE, Tadej, GABROVŠEK, Franci, KOGOVŠEK, Janja, KRANJC, Andrej, MIHEVC, Andrej, MULEC, Janez, OTONIČAR, Bojan, PERNE, Matija, PETRIČ, Metka, PIPAN, Tanja, PRELOVŠEK, Mitja, RAVBAR, Nataša, ŠEBELA, Stanka, ZUPAN HAJNA, Nadja, BOSÁK, Pavel, PRUNER, Petr, LIU, Hong, KNEZ, Martin (urednik), SLABE, Tadej (urednik). Cave exploration in Slovenia : discovering over 350 new caves during motorway construction on classical karst. Cham [etc.]: Springer, cop. 2016. XIII, 324 str., ilustr. Cave and karst systems of the world. ISBN 978-3-319-21202-9. ISSN 2364-4591. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21203-6. [COBISS.SI-ID 38828077]

GABROVŠEK, Franci, KNEZ, Martin (avtor, urednik), KOGOVŠEK, Janja, MIHEVC, Andrej, MULEC, Janez, OTONIČAR, Bojan, PERNE, Matija, PETRIČ, Metka (avtor, urednik), PIPAN, Tanja, PRELOVŠEK, Mitja, SLABE, Tadej (avtor, urednik), ŠEBELA, Stanka (avtor, urednik), TURK, Janez, ZUPAN HAJNA, Nadja. The Beka-Ocizla cave system : karstological railway planning in Slovenia. Cham [etc.]: Springer, cop. 2015. X, 102 str., ilustr., zvd. Cave and karst systems of the world. ISBN 978-3-319-04455-2, ISBN 978-3-319-04456-9. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-04456-9. [COBISS.SI-ID 56041570]