Web Technologies

Objectives and competences

The main objective of the course is present the basic web technology concepts that are required for developing web applications. The key technology components are descriptive languages, server-side program elements and client-side program elements.


Fluent in English or Slovene language, basic knowledge in computer and information science


  1. Introduction
    • The goal and purpose of the course
    • Course materials and method of work
    • Required and additional literature
    • Study guide

  2. Basic definitions
    • Internet and web
    • Communication systems and networks
    • Computer networking principles
    • Client-server architecture
    • Web pages and web applications

  3. Web technologies
    • Internet environment
    • Web servers
    • Web browsers
    • DOM document object model
    • Internet protocols HTTP and HTTPS
    • Web services
    • Ajax
    • Sessions and cookies

  4. Languages for web techologies
    • HTML and XML
    • CSS
    • Javascript
    • JSON data format
    • PHP

  5. Advanced web technologies
    • Web databases
    • MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture
    • CMS systems (Content Management Systems)

  6. Web page design
    • Principles of web page design
    • Templates
    • Web page design tools
    • Internet security

Intended learning outcomes

The student will learn about the basics of computer networks and HTTP protocol. They will understand and know how to use descriptive languages like HTML. They will also know how to use web programming languages (like PHP and JavaScript) and be capable of construction less demanding web application on their own.


• Kumar, A., Web technologies, CRC press, 2019
• Gupta, R., Internet & Web Technologies, Engineering Handbook, 2019
• Kohli , S., Web Technologies, PPB Publications, 2015
• Martin, M.G., Programming for Beginners: 6 Books in 1 - Swift+PHP+Java+Javascript+Html+CSS: Basic Fundamental Guide for Beginners, Independently published, 2018
• Learning PHP, MySQL & JavaScript: With jQuery, CSS & HTML5, O'Reilly Media; 5th edition, 2018 E-version


Seminar with oral presentation and discussion, Written exam 40/60

Lecturer's references

Prof. Suzana Loshkovska, Ph.D. received the bachelor and master degrees in computer science and automation from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Skopje, in 1988 and 1992, respectively, and the Ph.D. from the Technical University of Wien, Wien, Austria in 1995. She is a full professor of Computer Science and the head of the Department of Software Engineering at the Faculty of Computer Science Engineering, “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” University in Skopje. Her research interests include programming, visualization, human-computer interaction, virtual reality, medical imaging, and technologically enhanced learning. Suzana Loshkovska has over 25 years of experience in teaching, supervising and guidance of undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of programming, medical informatics, content-based image retrieval, visualization and human-computer interaction. Also, she has over 10 years of experience in developing and ensuring quality assurance of study programs for higher education institutions. She entered the Open Education for a Better World program as a mentor from the very beginning, and acts as a mentor in international teams.

Relevant papers:
1. Dimitrovski, Ivica & Spasev, Vlatko & Loskovska, Suzana & Kitanovski, Ivan. (2024). U-Net Ensemble for Enhanced Semantic Segmentation in Remote Sensing Imagery. Remote Sensing. 16. 2077. 10.3390/rs16122077.
2. Trojachanec, D., Kitanovski, D., Dimitrovski, I., Loshkovska, S., (2023). A Multi-Modality Approach to Medical Case Retrieval for Alzheimer's Disease. In 16th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies - Volume 5: HEALTHINF, Proceedings. ISBN 978-989-758-631-6, ISSN 2184-4305, (pp. 554-561). DOI: 10.5220/0011939800003414.
3. Dineva, K.T., Kitanovski, I., Dimitrovski, I., Loshkovska, S. and Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2022). Combining Static and Dynamic Features to Improve Longitudinal Image Retrieval for Alzheimer’s Disease. In ICT Innovations 2022. Reshaping the Future Towards a New Normal: 14th International Conference, ICT Innovations 2022, Skopje, Macedonia, September 29–October 1, 2022, Proceedings (pp. 107-120). Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland.
4. Loshkovska, S. (2022) Virtual and Augmented Reality in Education, International Conference on New Approaches (ICNAE’22)/2022, pp. 86-90
5. Trojachanec, D., Kitanovski, D., Dimitrovski, I., Loshkovska, S., (2022). Missing Data in Longitudinal Image Retrieval for Alzheimer’s Disease. In 19th International Conference for Informatics and Information Technology, Proceedings (pp.69-74). 2022.
6. Ademi, N. and Loshkovska, S., (2020) Clustering Learners in a Learning Management System to Provide Adaptivity, ICT Innovations 2020, web-Proceedings (https://proceedings.ictinnovations.org/2020/paper/529/clustering-learners-in-a-learning-management-system-to-provide-adaptivity), pp. 82-95
7. Ademi, N., Loshkovska, S., (2020) Weekly Analysis of Moodle Log Data in RStudio for Future Use in Prediction, 17th International Conference on Informatics and Information Technologies - CIIT 2020, 8-May-2020, Mavrovo, North Macedonia.
8. Ademi, N., Loshkovska, S., Chorbev, I., (2020) User Modeling Approaches in Adaptive Learning Systems, International Journal of Technical and Natural Sciences, Skopje, North Macedonia, 2020, Vol.1(2), [Available at: http://ijtns.ibu.edu.mk/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/IBU-IJTNS_Vol-1_Issue-2.pdf]
9. Ademi N., Loshkovska S. (2019) Exploratory Analysis of Student Activities and Success Based on Moodle Log Data, CiiT - 16th International Conference on Informatics and Information Technologies, Mavrovo, Macedonia, May 10-12, 2019.
10. Ademi N., Loshkovska S., Kalajdziski S. (2019) Prediction of Student Success Through Analysis of Moodle Logs: Case Study. In: Gievska S., Madjarov G. (eds) ICT Innovations 2019. Big Data Processing and Mining. ICT Innovations 2019. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1110. Springer, Cham
11. Ademi, N., Loshkovska, S. (2019). Early Detection of Dropouts in E-Learning Systems. Academic Perspective Procedia, 2 (3), 1008-1015. DOI: 10.33793/acperpro.02.03.112
12. Ademi, N., Loshkovska, S., (2019) User Data In Adaptive Learning Systems, Turkish Studies Information Technologies and Applied Sciences, Volume 14 Issue 4, 2019, p. 507-518.
13. Ademi, N., Loshkovska, S., Chorbev, I., (2019) Reinforcing motivation and engagement by behavioral design in learning systems, International Open & Distance Learning Conference, IODL 2019, 14-16 November 2019, Eskisehir, Turkey, p. 237-244.

Research projects:

Project title: Applying Semantic Technologies for dynamic adaptivity of health information systems in Montenegro and Macedonia
Period: 2016-2017
Financed by: Ministry of Education (bilateral project)
Role in the project (PI or participant): PI

Project title: MAESTRA: Learning from Massive, Incompletely Annotated, and Structured Data
Period: 2014-2017
Financed by: FP7 Project
Role in the project (PI or participant): participant

Project title: Future education and training in computing: how to support learning at anytime anywhere (FETCH)
Period: 2014-2016
Financed by: FP7 Project
Role in the project (PI or participant): PI

Project title: Tools and techniques for improvement and support of learning introductory programming
Period: 2015-2016
Financed by: FINKI, UKIM
Role in the project (PI or participant):participant

Courses taught
- Undergraduate
Interactive applications
User Interface Design Patterns
Internet programming
Client Side Internet programming
Human Computer Interaction
Design of User-Computer Interaction
Virtual Reality
Computer Graphics
Web Technologies
- Graduate
Software Design Patterns
Visualization Algorithms
Software Testing and Usability
Software Quality Management
Multimedia Interaction
Medical Informatics
Technologies for Open Education