History of Historiography

This course is part of the programme
Bachelor's study programme Cultural history (1st level)

Objectives and competences

Students will master the basic concepts of specific historical periods; they will develop the skill of building an interdisciplinary network of knowledge from different humanistic fields and will receive an overview of basic historiographical concepts. They will suitably link the objectives, subject contents, work methods etc. to establish a proper image of the development of historiography though the period of time, the similarities and differences between them – and the tools for critical reviewing of modern historical processes.

The discussed course covers general contents from the field of historical sciences, i.e. the structure and the techniques of historical research, the basics of political history, cultural history etc. Students will master the basic principles of historical science, i.e. the procedures of planning and executing an historical research; they will suitably link and coordinate particular historical concepts while employing the broadest possible spectrum of research methods and strategies, leading to the desired research results, their proper arrangement and critical assessment. They will also develop their ability to critically approach preserved sources, review historical methods and begin with independent scientific work.


Enrolment in the 3rd study year.


The object of this subject course is attached to the subject matter of the 1st year, i.e. "Introduction to the study of history"; it explores the mechanisms of self-reflective thinking that we call history. We wonder why this kind of creation and comprehending the sequence of past events (despite the fact that it has been since the beginning of its existence, torn between art and science) at the time of its development gained so much force and why the majority of those with whom we meet, led conviction that by controlling the past to cope with the future. History was never just a matter of debate between historians, but also the result of the eternal tension between past and present; it is necessarily questioned by authors from Homer, Herodotus and Hecataeus to - finally - Hayden White, Gabrielle Spiegel and Keith Jenkins. Herodotus’ spiritual grandson Keith Jankins directly called to a critical disobedience to all authoritarian voices of modernist historiography and breach of all “conventions”. According to him, only this attitude can lead from definitive and unambiguous texts to unlimited openness.

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding:
Students are acquainted with the intricacies of historical science and its basic concepts. They are competent in planning and executing a historical research and evaluating historical sources. They receive knowledge of methods and research strategies, develop the ability to perform archival, field and theoretical research and develop the ability to express themselves scientifically. They have the ability to pinpoint crucial historical dilemmas and present historical issues.
Students are able to employ their knowledge in different practical scientific circumstances. They develop the ability for systematic historical research, critical evaluation of historical materials and the output of processed information. Tutorials, related to the lectures in contents, will help develop students’ critical attitude to preserved historical sources, their knowledge of historical methods and their ability to perform independent research.


  • Appleby, Joyce; Hunt, Lyn; Jacob, Margaret, Telling the Truth About History, New York – London, 1994. E-version
  • Bently, Michael, Modern Historiography, Routledge, London – New York 1999. E-version
  • Braudel, Ferdinand, On History, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London 1980. E-version
  • Burke, Peter, New Perspectives on Historical Writing, Pensylvania University Press, University Park 1992. E-version
  • Canadine, David (ur.) What is History Now, Palgrave, Haundmills – New York 2002. E-version
  • Carr, E.H., What is History?, Penguin, London 1987. E-version
  • Davies, Natalie, Zemon, The Return of Martin Guerre, Penguin, Harmondworth 1985. E-version
  • Fueter, Eduard. Geschichte der neueren Historiographie, R. Oldenbourg, München, Berlin, 1911. E-version
  • Fueter, Eduard. Storia della storiografia moderna, Milano, Napoli 1970.
  • Jenkins, Keith, Rethinking History, Routledge, London 1991. E-version
  • Kramer, Lloyd; Maza, Sarah, A Companion to Western Historical Thought, Blackwell, Malden – Oxford 2002. E-version
  • Luthar, Oto, Mojstri in muze. Kaj in zakaj je zgodovina?, Modrijan, Ljubljana 1997. Catalogue
  • Luthar, Oto, Med kronologijo in fikcijo. Strategije historičnega mišljenja, ZPS, Ljubljana 1993. Catalogue
  • Luthar, Oto et al. Zgodovina historične misli od Homerja do začetka 21. stoletja, Ljubljana 2006. Catalogue Catalogue
  • Makuc, Neva. Historiografija in mentaliteta v novoveški Furlaniji in Goriški, Ljubljana 2011. Catalogue
  • Marwick, Arthur, The Nature of History, Macmillan, London 1989. E-version
  • Momigliano, Arnaldo, The Classical Foundation of Modern Historiography, University of California Press, Berkeley 1990.
  • White, Hayden, The Content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation, John Hopkins university Press, Baltimore 1987. E-version
  • White, Hayden, Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineetenth Century Europe, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1973.
  • Young, Robert, White Mythologies, Routledge, London 1990. E-version


Colloquia 60 %, individual presentation, seminar paper 20 % and oral exam 20 %. The first three tests are conditional to be admitted to the exam.

Lecturer's references

N. Makuc’s basic research work is oriented to early modern history, especially to historiography and collective identities. The international recognisability is demonstrated by her invited lectures and participation in international conferences abroad and original scientific articles published in foreign internationally recognised journals. She complements her basic research with applied work in the field of valorisation of cultural heritage.

-SLORI Award (in 2012), granted by the Slovenian Research Institute (Trieste, Italy), for the PhD dissertation on Friulian historiography and Slovenian history, Furlanska historiografija in slovenska zgodovina, which among others contributed to the knowledge of the Slovenian community in Italy.
-Ervin Dolenc Award (in 2012), granted by the Historical Association of Slovenia, for her scientific book debut on the historiography and mentality in the early modern-period Friuli and County of Gorizia, titled Historiografija in mentaliteta v novoveški Furlaniji in Goriški (Ljubljana: Založba ZRC, Milko Kos Historical Institute, 2011).
Original scientific articles:
MAKUC, Neva. Dante Alighieri e il suo supposto viaggio nel Friuli e nell´alta Valle dell´Isonzo. Quaderni giuliani di storia, 2017, let. 38, št. 1/2, str. 69-85.
MAKUC, Neva. Italijanski patriotizem in deželna zavest : odnos novoveške italijanske intelektualne elite do ljudstev brez neposredne rimske tradicije. Acta Histriae, 2015, let. 23, št. 1, str. 17-28.
MAKUC, Neva. Early modern provincial identity in the border area between the Venetian Republic and the hereditary lands of the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg. Historijski zbornik, 2015, let. 68, str. 1-14.
MAKUC, Neva. Noble violence and banditry along the border between the Venetian Republic and the Austrian Habsburgs. Mediterranea. Ricerche storiche, 2015, let. 12, št. 33, str. 211-226.
MAKUC, Neva. Gli Sloveni nelle fonti storiografiche Friulane del settecento. Ricerche slavistiche, 2014, let. 12, [št.] 58, str. 503-512.
MAKUC, Neva. Contributo sulla conoscenza degli Slavi da parte degli storici friulani moderni. Quaderni giuliani di storia, 2013, let. 34, št. 1, str. 99-110.
MAKUC, Neva. "Gl'odij intestini sono tant'oltre col sangue penetrati nel sangue" : o plemiškem razbojništvu in fajdah v novoveški Furlaniji in Goriški. Izvestje Raziskovalne postaje ZRC SAZU v Novi Gorici, 2012, [št.] 9, str. 10-16.
MAKUC, Neva. Testimonianze sugli Sloveni in Marc'Antonio Nicoletti. Memorie Storiche Forogiuliesi, 2011, vol. 91, str. 57-65.
Scientific monograph:
MAKUC, Neva. Historiografija in mentaliteta v novoveški Furlaniji in Goriški, (Thesaurus memoriae, Dissertationes, 8). Ljubljana: Založba ZRC, ZRC SAZU, 2011. 278 str.
Indipendent scientific component part in a monograph:
MAKUC, Neva. Novoveški goriški zgodovinopisci. V: OSET, Željko (ur.), OSET, Željko. Goriški izobraženci skozi zgodovino. V Novi Gorici: Založba Univerze. 2018, str. 12-25.
MAKUC, Neva. A furor de populo : upor v Furlaniji leta 1511 v luči sočasne historiografije. V: JERŠE, Sašo (ur.). Leukhup! : kmečko uporništvo v obdobju predmoderne : zgodovina, vzporednice, (re)prezentacije : [znanstvena monografija]. Ljubljana: Slovenska matica: Zgodovinski inštitut Milka Kosa ZRC SAZU; Brežice: Posavski muzej. 2017, str. 133-143.
MAKUC, Neva. Brda in Brici v habsburško-beneških vojnah. V: MAKUC, Neva (ur.), KOLENC, Petra (ur.). Poznogotski krilni oltar v cerkvi sv. Križa v Kojskem (1515) in življenje v Brdih v 16. stoletju. 1. izd. Ljubljana: Založba ZRC, ZRC SAZU. 2016, str. 67-77.
MAKUC, Neva. O banditizmu in nasilju ob habsburško-beneški meji v Furlaniji in na Goriškem (17. stoletje). V: VINKLER, Jonatan (ur.), BIANCO, Furio (ur.), PANJEK, Aleksander (ur.). Upor, nasilje in preživetje : slovenski in evropski primeri iz srednjega in novega veka, (Presojanja - zgodovinopisne razprave, 3). Koper: Založba Univerze na Primorskem. 2015, str. 109-132.
MAKUC, Neva. Vojna na meji : slovensko govoreče prebivalstvo v poznosrednjeveških in novoveških spopadih na Goriškem in v Furlaniji. V: GODINA-GOLIJA, Maja (ur.). Vojne na Slovenskem : pričevanja, spomini, podobe. 1. izd. Ljubljana: Založba ZRC, ZRC SAZU. 2012, str. 107-118.