Friulan language, literature and culture

Objectives and competences

The main purpose of this course is to provide the linguistic and cultural knowledge of the Friulian language, which should enable active oral communication, reading and understanding of literary and other texts as well as professional knowledge about the civilization of the adjacent nation. The course is conceived as a complement to quality education of Slovenian language, for which it is recommended if not needed to know the main features of the Romance languages, which made an impact on all levels of the Slovenian language.
The course should enable a student to independently analyze the potential elements of Friulian origin within the Slovenian language.




The course provides a balance between professional and pragmatic knowledge. The introductory part is designed for a a student to acquire general knowledge of the history of the Friulian language, and especially with the help of language exercises also a certain competence in Friulian grammar. Teaching the basics of the language is based on the use and analysis of texts as the main starting point of the learning process, which should enable the student to actively communicate in the Friulian language.

Linguistic image of Friuli: the presence of languages of Romance, Slovenian and German origin

The standard language and dialects : the relationship between linguistic genres

Standard Friulian

Review of other literary genres (journalism), folk literature and oral tradition
Friuli civilization

Intended learning outcomes

A student will learn the basics of the Friulian language and its main grammatical features as well as about the topics from the Friulian literature and culture.


  • G. Faggin: Grammatica friulana. Udine: Ribis 1997.
  • G. Frau: I dialetti del Friuli. Udine: Societa’ Filologica Friulana, 1984.
  • Friaulisch / Friulano. V: Lexikon der Romanischen Linguistik. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer, III (1989), str. 563–645.
  • Kersevan: Amalars: Antologije de leteradure furlane pe scuele medie, Udin: Kappa Vu, 2000.
  • La grafie uficial de lenghe furlane. Osservatori Regjonal de Lenghe e de Culture Furlanis, Udine, 1999. E-version
  • G. Marchetti: Lineamenti di grammatica friulana. Udine: Societa’ filologica friulana, 1977.
  • P. Rizzolati: Elementi di linguistica friulana. Udine: Societa’ Filologica Friulana, 1981.
  • G. D’Aronco, Nuova antologia della letteratura friulana. Udine: Ribis, 1982. Catalogue
  • R. Pellegrini, Tra lingua e letteratura: Per una storia degli usi scritti del friulano. Udine: Casamassima, 1987.
  • L. Verone, Rassegne di Leteradure Furlane. Udine: Societat Filologjiche Furlane, 1999.
  • D. Virgili, La flor: Letteratura ladina del Friuli. Udine: Societa’ Filologica Friulana, 1978.


30% colloquium / 30% seminar paper / 40% exam.

Lecturer's references

Assoc. Prof. Danila Zuljan Kumar has been focusing her research on Slovene dialectology, especially western Slovenian dialects, dialectal syntax, text linguistics and languages in contact. Since 2002 she is employed in the Fran Ramovš Institute of the Slovenian Language, ZRC SAZU and from 2010 the Head of the ZRC SAZU Research station in Nova Gorica, where she leads the project Slovenian west national border in the changes of time. She participates in the preparation of the Slovene Linguistic Atlas at ZRC SAZU and also in the course “Slovene dialectology” in the Faculty of Humanities, University of Nova Gorica. She is the Head of the Committee for organizing Gradnik’s Evenings in the Dobrovo Castle, Brda, and participates in the preparation of events for Škrabec Days.
From 1992 to 2002 she taught English in primary and secondary schools. From 1995 to 1998 she taught Slovenian language in the Wall Street Institute in Gorizia, Italy. In 1998 she participated as a mentor in the Research camp in the Kanal valley, Italy. In 2002 she lectured in the course “Slovene language and culture” in Špeter (San Pietro), Venetian Slovenia, Italy.
Under the Erasmus program, she has lectured in several universities – in Prague, Lodz, Vilnius and Sofia and she attended linguistic conferences in Slovenia, Austria, Slovak republic, Hungary, Finland, Bulgaria, Croatia, Lithuania, Italy and Norway. In 2009 she had a lecture on Slovenian dialects in the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

ZULJAN KUMAR, Danila. Večpomenskost poimenovanj za pomena 'obrvi' in 'trepalnice' v slovenskih narečjih (po gradivu za SLA, ALI in ASLEF). Ann, Ser. hist. sociol., 2012, letn. 22, št. 2, str. 487-498, ilustr. [COBISS.SI-ID 2342355]
ZULJAN KUMAR, Danila. Tipologija poimenovanj v gradivu za Slovenski lingvistični atlas. V: KOLENC, Petra (ur.). Marušičev zbornik : zbornik prispevkov v počastitev 70-letnice prof. dr. Branka Marušiča, (Goriški letnik, 2009-2010, 33-34). Nova Gorica: Goriški muzej, 2010, zv. 2, str. 833-848. [COBISS.SI-ID 32326701]
ZULJAN KUMAR, Danila. Cohesive means in Slovenian spontaneous dialectical conversations. Slavia Centralis, 2010, letn. 3, št. 2, str. 17-34. [COBISS.SI-ID 252866816]
ZULJAN KUMAR Danila. Словенский яз�‹к и словенская национальная, региональная и локальная идентичность. (V tisku).

ZULJAN KUMAR Danila. Jezik, skupnost, identiteta: odnos do prvega (maternega) jezika v času globalizacije (primer Beneških Slovencev in Furlanov). (v tisku)