History of karst theories (morphology)

This course is part of the programme
Karstology (Third Cycle)

Objectives and competences

Object history of theories of karst (karst morphology) is a kind of continuation and deepening of the object history karstology. It is primarily intended for students who would be the doctoral selected more historical theme or students who would have turned to the geomorphology of the more theoretical point of view and should be familiar with the development of theories that explain the emergence and development of the karst surface - karst geomorphology. Students must master theories and explanations of the origin and evolution of the karst surface and karst surface features, compare them with older and be able to follow the development of the theory of karst površjuoziroma individual karst surface forms. It is also closely related to onomastics surface karst forms.




• Knowledge and perception of the karst surface and its peculiarities and characteristics in different historical periods, from antiquity to the Enlightenment
• The first theory on the evolution of the karst surface and karst surface forms
• B. Hacquet and its significance for geomorphology Karst
• The importance of research Dinaric karst geomorphology of karst
• Integration of knowledge from different types of karst in the world of karst geomorphological theory

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge of older works (from antiquity to the Middle Ages) on the karst surface and the perception of its features in the works of predecessors karstology (from the wall over the Valvasor to Hacquet) awareness and knowledge on karst geomorphology of the fundamental parts of 18 and 19 chair. Students are familiar with research Dinaric karst, which contributed substantially to the understanding of karst geomorphology, as well as contemporary perspectives and methods in the study of the karst surface in different types of karst or geographically very different karst territories.


• Herak, M. & V. T. Stringfield, eds, 1972: Karst, Important karst regions of the Northern Hemisphere, Elsevier 25–83.
• Kraus, F., 1894: Höhlenkunde.- Carl Gerold’s Sohn, 308 pp. Wien
• Kyrle, G., 1923: Grundriss der teoretischen Speläologie. –Speläol. Monographien, B. I, str. XVIII + 353, Wien.
• Penck, A., 1904: Über das Karstphänomen.- Vorträge des Vereines Verbreitung naturwiss. Kentnisse in Wien, 44/1, 1-38, Wien.
• Sweeting, Marjorie M. (edit.), 1981: Karst geomorphology.- Benchmark Papers in Geology, 59, 427 pp., Hutchinson Ross Publ. Comp., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania.
• Trimmel, Hubert, 1968: Höhlenkunde.- Die Wissenschaft, Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, 126, VIII + 300, Braunschweig.


Oral or written examination is intended to control the knowledge attained by a student through a lecture as well as his capacity od understanding. A student can apply for the examination if requiring 50 % presence at seminars and after making short written report (5-10 pages) on a narrow question of the basis of karstology or on a source touching his seminar or doctoral work.

Lecturer's references

Associate professor of Karstology



ŠEGINA, Ela, BENAC, Čedomir, ŠUŠTERŠIČ, France, KNEZ, Martin, ČAR, Jože. Linear features on karst surfaces: an example from Krk Island. Geologia Croatica : a journal of the Institute of Geology Zagreb and Croatian Geological Society. 2021, vol. 74, no. 2, str. 139-151. ISSN 1330-030X. DOI: 10.4154/gc.2021.13. [COBISS.SI-ID 76428803]

KNEZ, Martin, SLABE, Tadej, TRAJANOVA, Mirka, AKIMOVA, Tatjana, KALMYKOV, Igor. The karren peeling off on marbles in Altai (Altai Republic, Russian Federation) = Luščenje škrapelj na marmorjih v Altaju (Altajska republika, Ruska federacija). Acta carsologica. [Tiskana izd.]. 2020, letn. 49, št. 1, str. 11-38, ilustr. ISSN 0583-6050. https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/7197/8248, DOI: 10.3986/ac.v49i1.7197. [COBISS.SI-ID 35064323]

BLATNIK, Matej, CULVER, David C., GABROVŠEK, Franci, KNEZ, Martin, KOGOVŠEK, Blaž, KOGOVŠEK, Janja, LIU, Hong, MAYAUD, Cyril, MIHEVC, Andrej, MULEC, Janez, ALJANČIČ, Magdalena, OTONIČAR, Bojan, PETRIČ, Metka, PIPAN, Tanja, PRELOVŠEK, Mitja, RAVBAR, Nataša, SHAW, Trevor R., SLABE, Tadej, ŠEBELA, Stanka, ZUPAN HAJNA, Nadja, KNEZ, Martin (urednik), OTONIČAR, Bojan (urednik), PETRIČ, Metka (urednik), PIPAN, Tanja (urednik), SLABE, Tadej (urednik). Karstology in the classical karst. Cham: Springer, cop. 2020. XII, 222 str., ilustr., zvd., graf. prikazi. Advances in karst science. ISBN 978-3-030-26826-8. ISSN 2511-2066. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-26827-5. [COBISS.SI-ID 17912067]

KNEZ, Martin, SLABE, Tadej, GABROVŠEK, Franci, KOGOVŠEK, Janja, KRANJC, Andrej, MIHEVC, Andrej, MULEC, Janez, OTONIČAR, Bojan, PERNE, Matija, PETRIČ, Metka, PIPAN, Tanja, PRELOVŠEK, Mitja, RAVBAR, Nataša, ŠEBELA, Stanka, ZUPAN HAJNA, Nadja, BOSÁK, Pavel, PRUNER, Petr, LIU, Hong, KNEZ, Martin (urednik), SLABE, Tadej (urednik). Cave exploration in Slovenia : discovering over 350 new caves during motorway construction on classical karst. Cham [etc.]: Springer, cop. 2016. XIII, 324 str., ilustr. Cave and karst systems of the world. ISBN 978-3-319-21202-9. ISSN 2364-4591. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21203-6. [COBISS.SI-ID 38828077]

GABROVŠEK, Franci, KNEZ, Martin (avtor, urednik), KOGOVŠEK, Janja, MIHEVC, Andrej, MULEC, Janez, OTONIČAR, Bojan, PERNE, Matija, PETRIČ, Metka (avtor, urednik), PIPAN, Tanja, PRELOVŠEK, Mitja, SLABE, Tadej (avtor, urednik), ŠEBELA, Stanka (avtor, urednik), TURK, Janez, ZUPAN HAJNA, Nadja. The Beka-Ocizla cave system : karstological railway planning in Slovenia. Cham [etc.]: Springer, cop. 2015. X, 102 str., ilustr., zvd. Cave and karst systems of the world. ISBN 978-3-319-04455-2, ISBN 978-3-319-04456-9. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-04456-9. [COBISS.SI-ID 56041570]