Plant Biology

Objectives and competences

Students learn about the basics of botany (morphology, systematics, geobotany). Emphasis is placed on learning about the structure and function of higher plants as well as knowledge of local utility plants and weeds. From lower plants (protozoans and thalophyta) realizes a significant, important representatives


No experience is necessary. The subject is the basis for understanding the substance of plant physiology, viticulture, microbiology, grafting and selection of vines and plant pathology.


• Cytology: the cell, plant cell, protoplasm (elemental and molecular structure, properties) ; cytoplasm, cytoplasmic differentiation and cell organelles, cell nucleus and cell division; plastids (type, structure and function); mitochondria, ergastic formation - inclusions in protoplast and secretions; vacuoles and their contents, water vacuoles as osmosis regulator of plant cells; inclusions in plastids and vacuoles , cell wall (the formation, structure and functions).
• Histology: basic types of plant cells and the organization of the plant; constructive tissue (apical, intercalary and secondary meristems, meristemoids) ; permanent tissue (types and formation); parenchyma (assimilation, storage, wood parenchyma), the parent tissue (epideremis, exsodermis , endodermis, peridermis); differentiation of the epidermis and the basic operation of leaf stomata; supporting tissue (collenchyma, sclerenchyma, sclereids); conductive tissues (xylem, phloem, vessels, wood, bark); basics of translating the xylem and phloem; absorption and secretory tissues.
• Morphology and histology of the bud (cormus): primary structure of the stem , growth, proliferation, secondary thickening of stems, wood, bark (secondary cortex and rhytidome) ; leaf (leaf type, structure, location and growth); primary structure of roots, types of root systems, the growth of roots and mycorrhiza; thickening of secondary roots ; metamorphosis of plant organs; adjustments to availability of water, light, temperature and diet; life span.
• Plant propagation: sexual, asexual, flower, seed, fruit, germination, sporophyte, gametophyte, methagenesis;
• Systematics : basic taxonomic classification of plants; review of the taxonomic distribution of plants and the most important characteristics of major plant groups; review 's major groups of fungi, cormophyta, especially flowering plants.
• Ecology and geobotany : basic ecological groups of plant species in vineyards, especially those used in sowing in vineyard.

• In laboratory work the student learns basic types of plant cells , tissues and organs of higher plants , taking note of the method of determination of plants and learn about the typical representatives of indigenous flora with an emphasis on learning about agriculture major plant groups, especially vine and vineyard weeds.

• On the field work student learns and gathering plants for mandatory herbarium (emphasis on the vineyard weeds and grasses suitable for sowing in vineyards ) and learns about the external morphology of plants .

Intended learning outcomes

Students will be able to use the acquired basic knowledge of botany in other subjects of study. In addition, they can use this knowledge to their field of expertise. Knowledge will also help their understanding of the nature and processes in it.


• Kranjčič, B. 2002. Botanika. Univerza v Mariboru, Višja agronomska šola. Maribor. Catalogue
• Dremastia, M. 2010. Pogled v rastline. 2. izd. Ljubljana: Nacionalni inštitut za biologijo, Ljubljana. Catalogue
• Martinčič, A.; Wraber, T.; Jogan, N.; Ravnik, V.; Podobnik, A.; Turk, B.; Vreš, B. 2007. Mala flora Slovenije. Ključ za določanje praprotnic in semenk. Tehniška založba Slovenije. Catalogue
• Bresinsky, A., Koerner, C., Kadereit, J.W., Neuhaus G., Sonnewald U. (eds.) 2008. Strassburger Lehrbuch der Botanik. Spectrum, Stuttgart,
• Lecture slides, MiTeam UNG classroom with materials.

• Sinkovič, T. 2010. Uvod v Botaniko, Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fakulteta. E-version


Mandatory participation in laboratory and field work, colloquium, written and oral exam. Final grade of the course is composed of drawings from laboratory exercises (7%). and herbarium (10%), colloquium (33%) and exam from lectures 50%

Lecturer's references

Prof.dr. Andraž Čarni is associate professor for the field of Ecology. He is coworker of University of Nova Gorica and employed at Znanstveno raziskovalnem centru Slovenske znanosti in umetnosti, Biološki inštitut Jovana Hadžija.

Publications, research and professional evidence of professor .