Principles of Enology

Objectives and competences

The student gets in touch with the economical means of enology in Slovenia and conqures basic knowledge about the grape ripening process; the basic chemical grapes, wine and must composition; physio-chemical characteristics; biochemical and microbiological procesess. The student becomes familiar with different technological grape processing and winemaking schemes; maturing of young wine, wine stabilisation and botteling, maturing and aging of wine and its nutritional


Not required.



  • Chemical composition of grapes, musts and wine: carbohydrates, organic acids, phenolic and nitrogen compounds, microelementrs, gases (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide)
  • Technological shemes of grape processing and primary must treating: different tchnological shemes of white and red grape processing (imidiate processing, maceration, carbonic maceration); allowed processes of must enriching (sugaring, acidity regulation, micro- and macrooxidation, ...)
  • The use of fining agents: when and why; weaknesses and advantages
  • Wine microbiology: yeasts, fungi and bacterias; the addition of starter yeast and lactic acid bacteria cultures; enzyme preparations
  • Biochemical changes during the alcoholic and malolactic fermentation: kinetics; primary and secundary metaboltes; the sources of fermentation retardation and/or its arrest
  • Maturing of young wine, the means of physico-chemical and microbiological stabilisation of botteled wine: allowed wine corrections; clarification, fining, stabilisation, maturation and aging od wine, barrique technology; filtration and botteling; cork
  • Wine deficiencies, mistakes and diseases: the sources of their commence, the preventions steps and means of correction; determination methodology of physico-chemical unstability of opened and botteled wines, microbiological changes including the spoilage microorganis identification.
  • Health and nutritional effects of moderate wine drinking: the most important antioxidants, their perservation and their function
  • Wine legislation and books of regulations: Slovenia versus other world countries (O.I.V., BATH)
  • Physio-chemical analysis and the microbiological control (DDP, DLP, HACCP)

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding of the maturation of the grapes, chemical composition of grapes, must and wine, fundamental biochemical and microbiological processes in wine production, basic technological schemes in winemaking, wine finning agents, young wine procedures, physico-chemical and microbiological processes and processes in wine aging.
Knowledge about deficiencies, defects and diseases of the wine. Determination of physico-chemical instability of open and bottled wines. Get the knowledge of the nutritional value of wine consumption, meets the basic national and global wine legislation and physico-chemical and microbiological control procedures of wine.

The student with the independent work in the form of seminar paper criticaly approaches to one of the topics related to the subject of the course.


• Boulton, R.B.; Singleton, V.L.; Bisson, L.F.; Kunkee, R.E. 1996. Principles and Practices of Winemaking. New York, Chapman & Hall, 604 s. Catalogue E-version
• Jackson, R.S. 2000. Wine science: Principles, practice, perception. London, Academic Press, 648 s. Catalogue
• Ribereau-Gayon, P.; Dubourdieu, D.; Doneche, B.; Lonvaud, A. 2000. Handbook of enology, Volume 1: The microbiology of wine and vinifications. New York, John Wiley&Sons, Ltd., 454 s. Catalogue
• Zoecklein, B.W.; Fugelsang, K.C.; Gump, B.H.; Nury, F.S. 1995. Wine Analysis and Production. New York, Chapman & Hall, 621 s. Catalogue
• Margalit, Y. 2004. Concepts in Wine technology. Catalogue
Slides, Miteam UNG classrom, Moodle UNG classrom


Assignment presentation (25 %), written examination (75 %)

Lecturer's references

dr. Melita Sternad Lemut is assistant professor for the field of Enology at the University of Nova Gorica, Head of Wine Research Centre at UNG, co-owner of Tilia Wine Estate.