Organic Chemistry in Viticulture and Enology

Objectives and competences

The objective of this course is to resume and upgrade the knowledge in organic chemistry, got in the secondary school. Special emphasis is given to the basic knowledge of organic chemistry such as fundamentals of reactions of organic compounds. These parts are necessary for the understanding of the phenomena in the environment and for the successful study in more specialised subjects.


Knowledge of General and Inorganic Chemistry.


hydrocarbons: alkanes (saturated hydrocarbons, structural formulas, alkyl groups, nomenclature of organic compounds, the physical properties of alkanes, the chemical properties of alkanes, halogenated hydrocarbons, cycloalkanes), alkenes (structure and nomenclature, geometric isomerism, the chemical properties of alkenes, polymerization), alkynes, benzene and aromatic hydrocarbons (structure and nomenclature, the use of benzene and its derivatives, oil, gasoline and natural gas, octane number);

alcohols, phenols and ethers: the functional groups, the classification and nomenclature of alcohols, the physical properties of alcohols, the synthesis of alcohols, chemical and physiological properties of alcohols, glycols and glycerol, phenols, ethers;
aldehydes and ketones: a carbonyl group, the nomenclature of aldehydes and ketones, the physical properties, the synthesis of aldehydes and ketones, chemical properties, some common carbonyl compounds;

carboxylic acids and derivatives: acids and derivatives thereof (functional groups, the structure and nomenclature of certain organic acids, the synthesis of carboxylic acids, the physical and chemical properties of the carboxylic acid), esters thereof, physical properties of the esters, the synthesis of esters (esterification), and chemical properties of esters (hydrolysis) , phosphoric acid esters, amides (synthesis, structure and nomenclature, physical and chemical properties of amides), significant esters and amides (aspirin, alkaloids, narcotics);

amines and derivatives: structure and classification of amines, the physical properties of the amines, amines, as a base, other chemical properties of the amines, heterocyclic amines, caffeine, nicotine, cocain;

stereoisomery: polarized light and optical activity, chirality of carbon atoms chiral centers, the biological importance of chirality;

Carbohydrates: definition and classification, monosaccharides (general properties, stereochemistry, hexoses, monosaccharides: cyclic structures, properties), disaccharides, polysaccharides;

lipids: what are lipids ?, fatty acids, fats and oils, the properties of fats and oils, soaps, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, cell membrane, steroids: cholesterol;

Protein: amino acids (general characteristics, reactions of amino acids), a peptide bond, classification and structure of proteins, silk, wool, collagen, myoglobin, electrochemical properties of proteins, denaturation of proteins.

Practical laboratory exercises:
==> Organic synthesis;
==> Esterification;
==> Fractional distillation;
==> Synthesis of polymers, condensation

Intended learning outcomes

Students will gain a basic knowledge of organic chemistry, which will help them to understand the chemical changes and reactions that take place in the vines and grapes during the ripening of grapes and processing technology and wine (polyphenols, acids, sugars, waxes, lipids, flavor).


• Atkins, P.W.; Clugston, M.J.; Frazer, M.J.; Jones, R.A.Y. 1997. Kemija – zakonitosti in uporaba, Tehniška založba Slovenije, Ljubljana. Catalogue
• Tišler, M. 1982. Organska kemija, DZS, Ljubljana, 1982. Catalogue
• Hill, J.W.; Feigl, D.M.; Baum, S.J. 1993. Chemistry and life: An Introduction to General, Organic and Biological Chemistry (4th ed.) (Macmillan publ. Co.), New York. E-version
• Slides, Miteam UNG classrom, Moodle UNG classrom.


Completed lab work is mandatory for taking the written examination, which verifies the practical and theoretical contents of the course. 30 % tutorials / 70 % lectures

Lecturer's references

Associate professor for the field of Food Science at the University of Nova Gorica.