Advanced Enology

Objectives and competences

The students upgrade their knowledge on grapes, must and wine chemical composition; they improve the understanding of (bio) chemical and microbiological processes during wine production and the relationship between wine composition and sensory profile. In parallel they learn about the role of enologist within wine quality assurance and wine style creation. They get familiar with the objectives, advantages and disadvantages of selected vinification procedures and their impact on the final wine chemical and sensory characteristics. They learn about different strategies of management, monitoring and controlling of technological processes. and are introduced to the planning and organization of the work in the wine cellar.


The course builds on and connects the knowledge, that was previously obtained whitin the following Courses: Principles of Enology, Principles of Viticulture, Overview of world viticulture and enology, Viticulture machinery and winecellar equipment, Grapes and wines quality control and Principles of Microbiology. In addition, the Course of Biochemistry is advised to be followed previously joining the Advanced Enology Course.


Winemaking technologies in the relation with chemical, biochemical, microbiological and sensorial changes in the must/wine; Advantages and disadvantages of chosen winemaking approaches, strategies for their control; Advanced knowledge of grapes, musts and wines chemical composition in the relation with the applied technologies: * Reminder about some basic concept in chemistry * Organic acids (concepts of total acidity, volatile acidity and pH value; alterations during fermentation; prediction and management of changes and stability...) * Sulfur dioxide (chemistry of sulfur dioxide in wine, anti-microbial properties, anti-oxidant and anti-oxidasic properties, advanced knowledge of SO2 management in winemaking * Wine flavor: Origin and sensory contribution * Primary, secondary and teritiary aroma * Aroma biosynthesis * Aromatic contribution * Phenolic compounds (chemical structure and sensory contribution) * Sugars (changes during processing; polysaccharides, originated from grapes and microorganisms...) * Nitrogen compounds and lipids (total and assimilable nitrogen; yeast nutrition management; nitrogen and toxic compounds; Minerals (cations and anions in wine; extracts, ash and alkalinity of the ash; ferric and cupric casse (clouding)...) * Influence of the different steps of winemaking on wine composition and wine style (white and red): pre-fermentative steps, fermentation and wine ageing * Wine colloidal stability (tartaric and protein) * Chemical description * Management * Champenoise method: the art to make sparkling wine

During laboratory exercises the students learn to evaluate different maturity factors as a basis for optimal harvest time decisions; they get familiar with the basic principles and methods for chemical analysis of musts and wines (sampling, solids, acidity, alcohol, sugars, phenolics, nitrogen compounds...); with basic procedures of wine clarification and the basics of sensory evaluation analysis.

In the context of seminars, the students get familiar with browsers / options for searching the professional and scientific literature; they independently study one selected scientific article from enology field and prepare a summary of it in writing.

Visiting enterprises/estates: learning about the activities and organization of the companies associated with winemaking.

Intended learning outcomes

An improved knowledge on various winemaking processes with an overall vision of production chain integration; Understanding the vinification technologies in terms of related wine chemical, biochemical, microbiological and sensorial changes; Beiing familiar with the options of management, monitoring and controlling of the technological processes of different wine styles (white and red).. Beiing aware of the role of enologist within planning and organizing the work processes in wine cellar.


• Ribéreau-Gayon P., Dubourdieu D., Doneche B., Lonvaud A. (2006). Handbook of Enology. 2006. The Microbiology of Wine and Vinifications. Vol. I, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Catalogue
• Ribéreau-Gayon P., Glories Y., Maujean A., Dubourdieu D. (2006). Handbook of Enology. 2006. The Chemistry of Wine Stabilization and Treatments. Vol. II, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Catalogue
• Jackson, R.S. (2000). Wine science: Principles, practice, perception. London, Academic Press. Catalogue E-version
• Margalit, Y. (2004). Concepts in wine technology. Wine Appreciation Guild. Catalogue
• Slides of lectures, MiTeam classrom.


Written colloquium from tutorials, and oral exam (positive evaluation of the colloquium is a condition for the performance of the final exam. The success of the midterm can be taken into account in the case of examination results between the two estimates)

Lecturer's references

Dr. Guillaume Antalick is assistant professor for Enology at Univeristy of Nova Gorica. He is expert with international experiences and numerous of connections. His scientific and professional references and experiences are available here </a.