Objectives and competences

The course is divided in three parts. The first part contains Introduction to the physics of the atmosphere together with the description of classical and automatic meteorological instruments. The second part of the course is devoted to micrometeorology of plant canopy with theoretical background and practical examples of interrelationship between weather and plants. The last part contains introduction to the climate of Slovenia and its variability in last few decades with the emphasis on climate in agriculturally (especially viticulturally) important areas.
With the acquired knowledge and in combination with other subjects will be easier to adapt to the changes we are witnessing.


Physics in the 1st year of studies.


Basic properties of the atmosphere: air composition, structure of the atmosphere

Air temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind: basic laws of thermodynamics and dynamics of the atmosphere; spatial and temporal variability of meteorological variables

Radiation: radiation laws; solar radiation, terrestrial radiation,
Netoradiation Conduction: laws of energy transfer in solid mater; conduction in the ground
Convection: turbulent transfer of energy; convection in the atmosphere

Energy balance of the ground: conduction, convection and radiation as parts of the energy balance of the ground

Water balance: precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, water in soil


Interrelationship between plant canopy and meteorological variables

Energy and water balance of plant canopy, single plant and plant

Leaves impact of weather on plant growth and development: photosynthesis, breathing, water usage, etc.; phenology

Weather and plant pest and disease Impact of weather and climate on cattle breeding

Third part

Climate of Slovenia: spatial and temporal variability of climate conditions; different climate types; impact of relief, Adriatic Seaand Panonic lowland

Climate and agriculture/viticulture in Slovenia: The role ofweather and climate in agriculture, climate condition in different agricultural areas of Slovenia and their impact on agriculturalbranches; the problem of draughts, frost, hail, heat, cold, etc.


Practical exercises based on the course lectures.

Intended learning outcomes

Students will acquire basic knowledge of the physics of the atmosphere, measurements of meteorological variables, the interaction of weather and plant-with an emphasis on wine growing. Students will acquire knowledge of the climatic conditions in Slovenia in recent times, their variability. With the acquired knowledge and in combination with other subjects will be easier to adapt to the changes we are witnessing.


  • J. Rakovec, T. Vrhovec, Osnove meteorologije, DMFA, Ljubljana, 2000 Catalogue
  • J. M. Wallace & P. V. Hobbs, Atmospheric Science – An Introductury Survey (Chapters 1, 3, 4, 6, 7), Elsevier / Academic Press, 2nd edition E-version
  • Skok G. (2021), Uvod v meteorologijo, UL FMF, tudi prosto dostopno na naslovu: E-version
  • Ahrens, C.D. (2009) Meteorology Today: An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment. 9th Edition, Cengage Learning, Boston. Catalogue


Tutorial reports and seminar (50 %), tutorials are obligatory for examination, exam (50 %)

Lecturer's references

Dr Klemen Bergant is associate professor for meteorology at University of Nova Gorica, employed part time (20%) at its Centre for Atmospheric Research. His research fields are: regional climate change, agroclimatology, physics of the atmosphere, and development and application of lidars. In these fields he published together with co-authors over 30 scientific papers and several professional and popular papers. He presented his research work at several scientific and professional conferences, as well as in scientific monographs and reports. Otherwise, Dr. Klemen Bergant is director of Meteorological Office at Slovenian Environment Agency, Permanent Representative of Slovenia with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Chairman of European Network of National Meteorological Services (EUMETNET), and is actively involved in the work of Councils and Assemblies of several European meteorological organisations and associations. He is also court expert for meteorology.

Selected bibliography:

GAO, Fei, STANIČ, Samo, BERGANT, Klemen, BOLTE, Tanja, COREN, Franco, HE, Tingyao, HRABAR, Andrej, JERMAN, Jure, MLADENOVIČ, Ana, TURŠIČ, Janja, VEBERIČ, Darko, IRŠIČ ŽIBERT, Mateja. Monitoring presence and streaming patterns of Icelandic volcanic ash during its arrival to Slovenia. Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, 2011, vol. 8, no. 8, str. 2351-2363, doi: 10.5194/bg-8-2351-2011. [COBISS.SI-ID 1977339]

BERGANT, Klemen, BELDA, Michal, HALENKA, Tomáš. Systematic errors in the simulation of european climate (1961-2000) with RegCM3 driven by NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. International journal of climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, 2007, vol. 27, str. 455-472. [COBISS.SI-ID 695547]

BERGANT, Klemen, TRDAN, Stanislav. How reliable are thermal constants for insect development when estimated from laboratory experiments?. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, ISSN 0013-8703, 2006, vol. 120, str. 251-256. [COBISS.SI-ID 4599417]

BERGANT, Klemen, KAJFEŽ-BOGATAJ, Lučka, TRDAN, Stanislav. Uncertainties in modelling of climate change impact in future : an example of onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) in Slovenia. V: DEBELJAK, Marko (ur.), DŽEROSKI, Sašo (ur.), ŽENKO, Bernard (ur.). Selected papers from the Fourth European Conference on Ecological Modelling, September 27-October 1, 2004, Bled, Slovenia, (Ecological modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, vol. 194, issues 1-3, 2006). Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006, vol. 194, no. 1-3, str. 244-255. [COBISS.SI-ID 4481913]

BERGANT, Klemen, SUŠNIK, Mojca, STROJAN, Igor, SHAW, Andrew G. P. Sea level variability at Adriatic coast and its relationship to atmospheric forcing. Annales geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, 2005, vol. 23, no. 6, str. 1997-2010. [COBISS.SI-ID 417275]