Grapevine Secondary Metabolites

Objectives and competences

The course is for those students, who desire to deepen their already conquered knowledge about the chemical composition of the wines and grapes, as well as about the new and modern analytical techniques in that area in the field of secondary metabolites with special emphasis on polyphenols


Knowledge of general organic and anorganic chemistry, biochemistry and wine chemistry.



  • The classification of the secondary metabolites: chemical structure and nomenclature the major secondary metabolites found in grapes and in wine: polyphenols, volatile phenols, nor-isoprenoids, terpenes, pyrazines, nitrogen and sulfur compounds.
  • The physiological role of the secondary metabolies in the vine: some secondary metabolites are phytoalexins and through that protect the plants against different diseases (Peronospora, Botrytis) or against the UV irradiation.
  • Changes in the secondary metabolites' amounts during the grape ripening: the kinetics of the secondary metabolites biosynthesis during the grape maturation, which is an important information for making a decision about the harvest (polyphenol maturity, the amount of the nitrogen and aromatic compounds).
  • Evolution of the secondary metabolites during the vinification and wine aging: the chemistry of the secondary metabolites in wine.
  • The influence of the secondary metabolites on the organoleptic characteristics of the wine: the influence of the aromatic compounds, polyphenols, volatile phenols on the sensory characteristics of the red and white wines.
  • The nutritional value of the secondary metabolites in wine: the presentation of the recent and fresh research results from that area.
  • Analytical techniques of the secondary metabolites determination: the presentation of the new methods, which are more routine used (wine cellars) as well as with more profound, which are used in more modern and well equipped laboratories.

Intended learning outcomes

  • profound knowledge of the secondary metabolites of grapes, must and wine
  • profound knowledge and the latest findings in nutritional value of wines in conjunction with sekunarnimi metabolites (polyphenols and health)
  • profound knowledge of simple and advanced analytics secondary metabolites of grapes, must and wine
  • knowing and understanding of changes in the composition of secondary metabolites in grozju between dozoreavnje, during fermentation and aging of wines
  • Independent study of topic from the field of secondary metabolites in grapes, must and wine


• Ribereau-Gayon, P.; Glories, Y.; Maujean, A.; Dubourdieu D. 2000. Handbook of Enology, Volume 2: The chemistry of wine, stabilization and treatments. Wiley: 404 s. Catalogue
• Zoecklein, B.W.; Fugelsang K.C.; Gump, B.H.; Nury, F.S. 1995. Wine analysis and production. Chapman and Hall: 620 s. Catalogue
• Jackson, R.S. 2000. Wine Science: Principles, Practice, Perception. Academic Press: 654 s. Catalogue E-version
• Lecture slides
• Scientific papers


Written assigment, lecture written examination. Seminar paper (written asignment) is a prerequisite for the written examination

Lecturer's references

Associate professor for the field of Enology.

Selected publications:

  1. PAJOVIĆ, Radmila, RAIČEVIĆ, Danijela, POPOVIĆ, Tatjana, SIVILOTTI, Paolo, LISJAK, Klemen, VANZO, Andreja. Polyphenolic characterisation of Vranac, Kratosija and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grapes and wines from different vineyard locations in Montenegro. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, ISSN 0253-939X, 2014, vol. 35, no. 1, str. 139-148. [COBISS.SI-ID 4465768]
  2. ŠUKLJE, Katja, BAŠA ČESNIK, Helena, JANEŠ, Lucija, KMECL, Veronika, VANZO, Andreja, DELOIRE, Alain, SIVILOTTI, Paolo, LISJAK, Klemen. The effect of leaf area to yield ratio on secondary metabolites in grapes and wines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc. Journal international des sciences de la vigne et du vin, ISSN 1151-0285, 2013, vol. 47, no. 2, str. 83-97. [COBISS.SI-ID 4234600]
  3. VANZO, Andreja, JENKO, Mojca, VRHOVŠEK, Urška, STOPAR, Matej. Metabolomic profiling and sensorial quality of 'Golden Delicious', 'Liberty', 'Santana', and 'Topaz' apples grown using organic and integrated production systems. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, 2013, vol. 61, iss. 26, str. 6580-6587, doi: 10.1021/jf4011142. [COBISS.SI-ID 4220776]
  4. VANZO, Andreja, SCHOLZ, Mattias, GASPEROTTI, Mattia, TRAMER, Federica, PASSAMONTI, Sabina, VRHOVŠEK, Urška, MATTIVI, Fulvio. Metabonomic investigation of rat tissues following intravenous administration of cyanidin 3-glucoside at a physiologically relevant dose. Metabolomics, ISSN 1573-3882, 2013, vol. 9, issue 1, str. 88-100, doi: 10.1007/s11306-012-0430-8. [COBISS.SI-ID 3850856]
  5. FRACASSETTI, D., COETZEE, Carien, VANZO, Andreja, BALLABIO, D., DU TOIT, Wessel Johannes. Oxygen consumption in South African Sauvignon blanc wines : role of glutathione, sulphur dioxide and certain phenolics. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, ISSN 0253-939X, 2013, vol. 34, no. 2, str. 156-169. [COBISS.SI-ID 4344424]
  6. MOŽE BORNŠEK, Špela, ŽIBERNA, Lovro, POLAK, Tomaž, VANZO, Andreja, POKLAR ULRIH, Nataša, ABRAM, Veronika, TRAMER, Federica, PASSAMONTI, Sabina. Bilberry and blueberry anthocyanins act as powerful intracellular antioxidants in mammalian cells. Food chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146. [Print ed.], 2012, vol. 134, issue 4, str. 1878-1884, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.03.092. [COBISS.SI-ID 4060536]
  7. ŠUKLJE, Katja, LISJAK, Klemen, BAŠA ČESNIK, Helena, JANEŠ, Lucija, DU TOIT, Wessel Johannes, COETZEE, Zelmari, VANZO, Andreja, DELOIRE, Alain. Classification of grape berries according to diameter and total soluble solids to study the effect of light and temperature on methoxypyrazine, Glutathione, and hydroxycinnamate evolution during ripening of Sauvignon blanc (Vitis vinifera L.). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, 2012, vol. 60, iss. 37, str. 9434-9461., doi: 10.1021/jf3020655. [COBISS.SI-ID 3918184]
  8. MOŽE BORNŠEK, Špela, POLAK, Tomaž, DEMŠAR, Lea, KORON, Darinka, VANZO, Andreja, POKLAR ULRIH, Nataša, ABRAM, Veronika. Phenolics in Slovenian bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) and blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, 2011, vol. 59, no. 13, str. 6998-7004, doi: 10.1021/jf200765n. [COBISS.SI-ID 3921528]
  9. VANZO, Andreja, VRHOVŠEK, Urška, TRAMER, Federica, MATTIVI, Fulvio, PASSAMONTI, Sabina. Exceptionally fast uptake and metabolism of cyanidin 3-glucoside by rat kidneys and liver. Journal of natural products, ISSN 0163-3864, 2011, vol. 74, no. 5, str. 1049-1054. http://globalmedicaldiscovery. com/key-scientific-articles/exceptionally-fast-uptake-and-metabolism-of-cyanidin-3-glucoside-by-rat-kidneys-and-liver/. [COBISS.SI-ID 3608168]
    Nagrada: Key scientific article by Global Medicinal Discovery
  10. BAVČAR, Dejan, BAŠA ČESNIK, Helena, ČUŠ, Franc, VANZO, Andreja, DEMŠAR, Lea, KOŠMERL, Tatjana. Impact of alternative skin contact procedures on the aroma composition of white wine. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, ISSN 0253-939X, 2011, vol. 32, no. 2, str. 190-203. [COBISS.SI-ID 3685992]
  11. JANEŠ, Lucija, LISJAK, Klemen, VANZO, Andreja. Determination of glutathione content in grape juice and wine by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Analytica chimica acta, ISSN 0003-2670. [Print ed.], 2010, vol. 674, iss. 2, str. 239-242, doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2010.06.040. [COBISS.SI-ID 3347048]
    Nagrada: Nagrada za prispevek k trajnostnemu razvoju družbe za leto 2010, Javni sklad RS za razvoj kadrov in štipendije
  12. MAESTRO, Allessandra, TERDOSLAVICH, Michela, VANZO, Andreja, KUKU, Adenike, TRAMER, Federica, NICOLIN, Vanessa, MICALI, Fulvio, DECORTI, Giuliana, PASSAMONTI, Sabina. Expression of bilitranslocase in the vascular endothelium and its function as a flavonoid transporter. Cardiovascular Research, ISSN 0008-6363. [Print ed.], 2010, vol. 85, no. 1, str. 175-183. [COBISS.SI-ID 3206504]
  13. ŽIBERNA, Lovro, LUNDER, Mojca, MOŽE BORNŠEK, Špela, VANZO, Andreja, TRAMER, Federica, PASSAMONTI, Sabina, DREVENŠEK, Gorazd. Acute cardioprotective and cardiotoxic effects of bilberry anthocyanins in ischemiar-reperfusion injury : beyond concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. Cardiovascular toxicology, ISSN 1530-7905, 2010, vol. 10, issue 4, str. 283-294, doi: 10.1007/s12012-010-9091-x. [COBISS.SI-ID 27568345]
  14. PASSAMONTI, Sabina, TERDOSLAVICH, Michela, FRANCA, Raffaella, VANZO, Andreja, TRAMER, Federica, BRAIDOT, Enrico, ELISA, Petrussa, VIANELLO, Angelo. Bioavailability of flavonoids : a review of their membrane transport and the function of bilitranslocase in animal and plant organisms. Current drug metabolism, ISSN 1389-2002, 2009, vol. 10, no. 4, str. 369-394. [COBISS.SI-ID 3036776