Graduate School

Introduction to free-electron lasers

This course is part of the programme:
Physics (Third Level)

Objectives and competences

The course will give an overview on the generation mechanism and properties of radiation produced by free-electron lasers (FELs).

Emphasis will be put on the difference between the pulse properties of seeded and SASE FELs.

The objective is to provide students with a physical background behind the operation of an FEL.

Part of the course will discuss recent applications of FEL radiation in state-of-the art experiments in the field of biology and material science.

Prerequisites

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Content (Syllabus outline)

Radiation sources:

Bending magnet.

Undulator.

Wiggler.

Free-electron lasers (FELs):

Self-amplified spontaneous emission FEL.

Seeded FEL.

High-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) FEL.

Echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) FEL.

Applications of FEL radiation:

Femtosecond x-ray nanocrystallography and coherent x-ray diffraction imaging.

Time-resolved experiments with FELs.

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding:

The students will understand the generation mechanism and properties of radiation produced by FELs. They will be introduced to the possible applications of FEL pulses in different scientific disciplines.

Readings

1. P Luchini, H Motz, Undulators and free-electron lasers, Oxford [England]: Clarendon Press; New York : Oxford University Press, 1990.

2. R. Bonifacio, F. Casagrande, G. Cerchioni, L. de Salvo Souza, P. Pierini, N. Piovella, Physics of the high-gain FEL and superradiance, La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento 13, 1 (1990)

3. G. Margaritondo, Primož Rebernik Ribič, A simplified description of X-ray free-electron lasers, Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 18, 101 (2011)

4. Primož Rebernik Ribič, Giorgio Margaritondo, Status and prospects of x-ray free-electron lasers (X-FELs): a simple presentation, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 45, 213001 (2012)

5. C. Pellegrini, A. Marinelli, and S. Reiche, The physics of x-ray free-electron lasers, Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 015006 (2016)

Assessment

Written report, oral presentation. (50/50)

Lecturer's references

Assistant professor of physics at the University of Nova Gorica.

1. REBERNIK RIBIČ, Primož, ABRAMI, Alessandro, BADANO, Laura, BOSSI, Maurizio, BRAUN, Hans-Heinrich, BRUCHON, Niky, CAPOTONDI, Flavio, CASTRONOVO, Davide, CAUTERO, Marco, CINQUEGRANA, Paolo, DE NINNO, Giovanni, et al. Coherent soft X-ray pulses from an echo-enabled harmonic generation free-electron laser. Nature photonics. 2019, str. 1-8, ilustr. ISSN 1749-4885.

2. TANAKA, Takashi, REBERNIK RIBIČ, Primož. Shortening the pulse duration in seeded free-electron lasers by chirped microbunching. Optics express. 2019, vol. 27, no. 21, str. 30875-30892. ISSN 1094-4087.

3. REBERNIK RIBIČ, Primož, DE NINNO, Giovanni, et al. Extreme-ultraviolet vortices from a free-electron laser. Physical review. X. 2017, vol. 7, iss. 3, str. 031036-1-031036-9, ilustr. ISSN 2160-3308.

4. GAUTHIER, David, REBERNIK RIBIČ, Primož, DE NINNO, Giovanni, ALLARIA, Enrico, CINQUEGRANA, Paolo, BOJANOV DANAILOV, Miltcho, DEMIDOVICH, Alexander, FERRARI, Eugenio, GIANNESSI, Luca, MAHIEU, Benoît, PENCO, Giuseppe. Spectrotemporal shaping of seeded free-electron laser pulses. Physical review letters. [Print ed.]. 2015, vol. 115, no. 11, str. 114801-1-114801-5, ilustr. ISSN 0031-9007.

5. REBERNIK RIBIČ, Primož, GAUTHIER, David, DE NINNO, Giovanni. Generation of coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation carrying orbital angular momentum. Physical review letters. [Print ed.]. 2014, vol. 112, no. 20, str. 203602-1-203602-5. ISSN 0031-9007.

University course code: 3FIi31

Year of study: 1

Lecturer:

ECTS: 6

Workload:

  • Lectures: 30 hours
  • Seminar: 20 hours
  • Individual work: 130 hours

Course type: elective

Languages: slovene/english

Learning and teaching methods:
lectures and seminars presented by the students and prepared under the supervision of the lecturer. the students will have a chance to visit the fermi fel at the elettra synchrotron.