School for Viticulture and Enology

Analysis of Musts and Wines

This course is part of the programme:
Bachelor's programme in Viticulture and Enology (1st level)

Objectives and competences

The aim of the course is to present the basic principles of analytical chemistry, the fundamentals of the classical electrochemical and spectrophotometrical methods are presented

as well as their use in the wine making technology.

In the seminar section, the students win the adequate knowledge for evaluation of the chemical analysis results; during the laboratory practice become more experience and self-dependent

in the analytical work in the control laboratories as well as in the wine cellars.


Knowledge of general organic and inorganic chemistry and is connected with enology and other enology courses.

Content (Syllabus outline)


Fundamentals of chemical analysis (the phases of

chemical analysis, methods classification,


The analytical data evaluation (coincidental and systematical errors)

Basic analytical techniques (gravimetric, titrimetric,

precipitation, neutralization and complexiometric


The fundamentals of electrochemical techniques

(oxidation-reduction reactions and titration,

potentiomentric measurements)

The fundamentals of the spectroscopic techniques (molecular absorption spectrometry, emission spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry-AAS)

Methods for analyzing musts and wines (ash content, density, ethanol, extract, total acids, volatile acids, lactic acid, sulfur (IV) acid, mono and disaccharides, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, pH, buffer capacity, O2)


Laboratory practice work will be close conection to the contents presented on the lectures.

Intended learning outcomes

The course gives knowledge in the field of analytical chemistry that is associated with the determination of the parameters that are important for evaluating the quality of the grapes, must and wine. Learn all phases of the chemical analysis of various matrices associated with viticulture and winemaking, from sampling on. Different kinds of analyzes (gravimetric, titrimetric, spectrometric), evaluation and presentation of results of chemical analysis, determination of errors and all necessary knowledge of the chemical calculations that will assist in the evaluation of results, as well as the preparation of reagents in chemical analysis must of grapes and wine. Get acquainted with different reference and recommended methods for determining the quality of grapes and wine.


Ough, C.S.; Amerine, M.A. 1988. Methods for Analysis of Must and Wines; 2nd ed.; John Wiley & Sons; New York.

Skoog, D.A.; West, D.M.; Holler, F.J. 1996. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry; 7th ed.; Saunders; New York.


Written examination. Obligatory condition for written examination is completed lab work. Written exam covers theoretical questions from the lectures as well as issues related to the seminar and laboratory exercises (50/50)..

Lecturer's references

Lecturer is associate professor for the field of Food Science and Dean of School for viticulture and enology at UNG.

Selected publications:

1. BRATAŠEVEC, Kristina, SIVILOTTI, Paolo, MOZETIČ VODOPIVEC, Branka. Soil and foliar fertilization affects mineral contents in Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'rebula’ leaves. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition, ISSN 0718-9516, 2013, vol. 13, no. 3, str. 650-663. [COBISS.SI-ID 2943227]

2. MOZETIČ VODOPIVEC, Branka, WANG, Jing, MØLLER, Anne L., KRAKE, Jacob, LUND, Torben, HANSEN, Poul Erik, NIELSEN, Søren Laurentius. Differences in the structure of anthocyanins from the two amphibious plants, Lobelia cardinalis and Nesaea crassicaulis. Natural product research, ISSN 1478-6419. [Print ed.], 2013, vol. 27, issue 7, str. 654-664, doi: 10.1080/14786419.2012.688046. [COBISS.SI-ID 2387195]

3. JERMAN, Tina, MOZETIČ VODOPIVEC, Branka. DPPH solution (in)stability during kinetic UV/Vis spectrometry measurements of phenols antioxidant potential. Food analytical methods, ISSN 1936-9751, 2012, vol. 5, no. 4, str. 781-783, doi: 10.1007/s12161-011-9310-5. [COBISS.SI-ID 2040059]

4. JERMAN, Tina, MOZETIČ VODOPIVEC, Branka. Optimisation of olive oil phenol extraction conditions using a high-power probe ultrasonication. Food chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146. [Print ed.], 2012, vol. 134, issue 4, str. 2481-2488, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.096. [COBISS.SI-ID 2250235]

5. BAT, Karmen, VIDRIH, Rajko, NEČEMER, Marijan, MOZETIČ VODOPIVEC, Branka, MULIČ, Ines, KUMP, Peter, OGRINC, Nives. Characterization of Slovenian apples with respect to their botanical and geographical origin and agricultural production practice. Food technology and biotechnology, ISSN 1330-9862, 2012, vol. 50, no. 1, str. 107-116. [COBISS.SI-ID 3932024]

University course code: 1VV208

Year of study: 2

Semester: 1

Course principal:





  • Lectures: 30 hours
  • Exercises: 45 hours
  • Individual work: 105 hours

Course type: obligatory course

Languages: slovene

Learning and teaching methods:
lectures, laboratory practice, students' independent work