Transmission Electron Microscopy

This course is part of the programme
Materials (Third Level)

Objectives and competences

The primary goal of the course is to provide students with the basic knowledge in the fields of transmission electron microscopy and microanalysis and based on the examples show the exceptional capabilities of techniques associated with this microscopy. In understanding and development of new materials with the tailored properties, knowledge of the structure and chemical composition at the atomic level is of key importance. Most macroscopic properties can be explained by the structure at the atomic level.
Students acquire basic knowledge, experience and competences for designing experiments in
Predvideni študijski rezultati:
Intended learning outcomes:
the transmission electron microscope and for evaluation and interpretation of the results.




  • Electron – solid interactions
  • Conventional transmission electron
    microscopy (CTEM – instrumentation, types of contrast, bright and dark field experiments, TEM sample preparation)
  • Electron diffraction (analysis of electron diffraction patterns, indexing, zone axis determination, crystallographic relationships)
  • High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM – contrast transfer function, basics of phase contrast, influence of the thickness, through-focus series)
  • Scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM – detector types and information collected with different detectors and techniques)
  • Cs-corrected STEM microscopy, sub- Ångstrem resolution
  • Quantitative STEM microscopy on atomic level (determination of atom column positions and intensities)
  • HRTEM and STEM images simulations (modelling structures, calculation of HRTEM, HAADF and ABF images using multi-slice frozen-phonon method)
  • Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) in TEM/STEM (elemental quali, quantitative analysis, elemental distribution, mapping)
  • Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) (chemical composition, valence state, coordination, mapping, sample thickness determination)
  • TEM/STEM tomography (3D structure determination)
  • In-situ techniques (heating, cooling, electrical and electrochemical measurements in TEM/STEM)
  • Typical examples of TEM and STEM techniques used in the determination of crystal structure, defects in the crystal structure and chemical composition on atomic level

Intended learning outcomes

Students learn about the basic principles of operation, instrumentation and the use of (scanning) transmission electron microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Electron energy-loss spectroscopy. They learn how to properly prepare samples and determine experimental conditions, how to design experiments inside the microscope, and how to select appropriate techniques. In the individual work under the supervision of the lecturer, they learn the basics of centering and tuning the microscope and collecting data (images, depiction images, spectra, etc.).
They learn to independently evaluate the results obtained and interpret them correctly. All these skills will enable them to select the methods of investigation in the future development or research work in science or industry and to analyse the results accordingly.


David B. Williams and C. Barry Carter, Transmission Electron Microscopy, A Textbook for Materials Science, 2009, Springer-Verlag US, ISBN 978-0-387-76501-3, DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-76501-3

C. Barry Carter and David B. Williams, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Diffraction, Imaging, and Spectrometry, 2016, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, eBook ISBN 978-3-319-26651- 0, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-26651-0

Stephen J. Pennycook and Peter D. Nellist, Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, Imaging and Analysis, 2011, Springer-Verlag New York, eBook ISBN 978-1-4419-7200-2, DOI 10.1007/978-1- 4419-7200-2

Jürgen Thomas and Thomas Gemming, Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy, An Introduction for Operators, 2014, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, eBook ISBN 978-94-017-8601- 0, DOI 10.1007/978-94-017-8601-0

R.F. Egerton, Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope, 2011, Springer US, eBook ISBN 978-1-4419-9583-4, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-9583-4

Christoph Koch, Determination of core structure periodicity and point defect density along dislocations, ProQuest Dissertations And Theses; Thesis (Ph.D.), Arizona State University, 2002, Publication Number: AAI3042580, ISBN: 9780493562612

Vesta - program za modeliranje kristalnih struktur:

QSTEM - programi za simulacijo STEM slik:

Interaktivni portal za elektronsko mikroskopijo:


40/60, Individual project assignments on different topics, which the candidate presents in a discussion with the lecturer. A final project connected with research work and presented by the candidate orally to other students.

Lecturer's references

Prof. dr. Goran Dražić (h=29) is heading an Electron microscopy and catalysis group at the Department for Materials Chemistry at National Institute of Chemistry, Ljubljana, Slovenia. He is a full professor at the Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School where he is lecturing from 2005 in the fields of Transmission Electron Microscopy. He obtained his PhD degree in Chemistry from University of Ljubljana, Faculty for Chemistry and Chemical technology in 1990. As a postdoc he studied SiC hot corrosion at Forschungscentrum Jülich in Germany. Main areas of his research are the development and application of scanning transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopies at atomic level for the study of modern inorganic materials and the research and development of catalyst materials for photocatalysis and oxygen reduction reaction (fuel cells). His bibliography contains more than 210 scientific papers published in international peer-review journals, around 40 invited lectures and 10 book chapters. He was awarded with the Zois recognition for important scientific achievements in the field of Electron microscopy in 2000.

Selected publications:
Fluorinated Reduced Graphene Oxide and its application in Li-S batteries,
Vižintin Alen, Lozinšek Matic, Chellappan Rajesh, Foix Dominique, Krajnc Andraž, Mali Gregor, Dražić Goran, Genorio Boštjan, Dedryvère Rémi, Dominko Robert,
Chemistry of materials, 2015, 27 (20), 7070–7081,
IF 9,407
Singular structural and electrochemical properties in highly defective “LiFePO4” powders,
Amisse Robin, Sougrati Moulay Tahar, Stievano Lorenzo, Davoisne Carine, Dražić Goran, Budič Bojan, Dominko Robert, Masquelier Christian,
Chemistry of Materials 2015, 27, 4261−4273,
IF 9,407
Simple synthesis of anatase/rutile/brookite TiO2 nanocomposite with superior mineralization potential for photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A,
Kaplan Renata, Erjavec Boštjan, Dražić Goran, Grdadolnik Jože, Pintar Albin,
Applied Catalysis B, 2016, 181, 465–474,
IF 9,446
Atomically resolved dealloying of structurally ordered Pt nanoalloy as oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalyst,
Andraž Pavlišič, Primož Jovanovič, Vid Simon Šelih, Martin Šala, Marjan Bele,
Goran Dražić, Iztok Arčon, Samo Hočevar, Anton Kokalj, Nejc Hodnik , Miran Gaberšček, ACS Catalysis, 2016, 6, 5530 - 5534,
IF 10,614
Domain wall conduction in ferroelectric BiFeO3 controlled by accumulation of charged defects,
Tadej Rojac, Andreja Benčan, Goran Dražić, Naonori Sakamoto, Hana Uršič, Boštjan Jančar, Gašper Tavčar, Maja Makarovič, Julian Walker, Barbara Malič and Dragan Damjanović,
Nature Materials, 2017, vol. 16, no. 3, 322-327,
IF 39,737