Cell biology

Objectives and competences

The objective of the course is to provide students with basic knowledge about the structure and operation of the cell, which are necessary for understanding the subjects: Plant Physiology and Biotechnology, Plant Pathology, Biochemistry and Advanced Viticulture.
At the end of the course, the student is able to understand the basic processes at the cellular level and their interdependence and to upgrade this knowledge in the context of related study content in higher years.


The course is a basic course in the first year of study program, and preliminary knowledge is not requested.


Theoretical part
- Introduction to cell biology: the origin, structure and operation of pro- and eukaryotic cells (single-cells, fungus, multi-plant, animal, human); chemical composition of the cell.
-Cell membrane: basic biophysical and biochemical properties, maintenance of membrane composition, functioning of auxiliary structures, membrane transport (ion pumps, ion channels, control of the concentration of other molecules).
- Cell wall, cytoskeleton.
- Cellular organs. Special features of the plant cell: plastide and vacuole.
-Fundamentals of molecular biology: genes and gene expression; core and organization of chromatin; ribosomes and protein synthesis, protein sorting, and cell transport. Specificity of the plant cell.
-Endocytosis, exocytosis and the importance of vesicular transport in the plant cell.
- Metabolic interactions between organelles.
- Energy processes in a cell.
- Cell division: prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells: cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis.
- Cell differentiation.
- Cell and environment - receiving stimuli and responses.
- Cell death.

Practical part
- Functional ultrastructure: cytological and histological techniques.
- Cell division: cell culture.
- Hereditary record: DNA isolation.

Intended learning outcomes

Knowledge of the basic structure of the microbial, animal and plant cells. Knowledge of the basics of molecular biology; expression of genes, DNA transcription, protein synthesis. Knowing the basic physiological processes in a cell; membrane transport, vesicular transport, energy metabolism, interactions between organelles. Knowing the basic principles of cell division and differentiation and cell death. Understanding the basic mechanisms and the importance of intercellular communication. Knowing the specificity of the plant cell in all of these processes.


  • Jezernik K., Veranič P., Sterle M. Celična biologija. 2012, DZS. Catalogue
  • Alberts B. et al.: Essential Cell Biology. 2019, Garland Publishing Inc. Catalogue E-version
  • Slides/UNG Miteam classrom/Moodle Classrom.


Written exam (75%) and Lab work exam (25%).

Lecturer's references

Dr. Martina Bergant Marušič, assistant professor habilitated in field of molecular and cell biology at University of Nova Gorica.